Domestic Life as a Woman in a Slave Family
I am a black female slave living in Virginia in the late 17th Century. I was born into slavery on a plantation and all I have ever known is slavery. My slavery was passed on to me by my mother, who was raped by the old plantation owner here in 1660 (DuBois & Dumenil, 2016, p. 55). I was married to another slave at 15. We had a marriage ceremony but it was not recognized as legal and our vows accurately were “Till death or distance do us part” rather than “Till death do us part,” owing to the propensity of slaveholders to separate black families without regard for our family bonds (Burns, 1990). Before and after our marriage, I work in the fields, manuring and tilling tobacco, alongside my husband (DuBois & Dumenil, 2016, p. 54). We were also able to have one child, despite the rough conditions under which we lived (DuBois & Dumenil, 2016, p. 58) and despite the deep alienation I felt as a black slave woman (Menard, 2001, p. 41). There is no escape from the slave life I have and the constant use of us like animals; consequently, the fact that I chose to bring a child into this world at all is something of a miracle.
Both my husband and daughter were sold again and I have never seen them since. My husband was sold first. He was “sold south” — a long-distance trade sending him far from us and into a deeper southern state. May slaves were “sold south” because slaves in the deeper southern states vitally needed slaves. As the abolitionist Alvin Stewart stated that in Alabama, Louisiana and Mississippi, “there is such havoc annually by death among the slaves of the great planters … that in less than seven years, if no slave could be imported into those southern regions, one half of the plantations would lie uncultivated for want of slaves” (Tadman, 2005, p. 121). Our family was torn apart and the private sale was just as awful as it would have been at public auction (Tadman, 2005, p. 130). Before my husband was sold, we hoped that any sale would be local and we dreaded a long-distance separation that would be caused by being sold south. We knew other families that were broken up by this and because of that, we all deeply distrusted slave owners in general (Tadman, 2005, p. 131). My daughter was sold after my husband. She was sold in Richmond, Virginia in a private sale between plantation owners, which was more common than public auctions (Tadman, 2005, p. 128). My daughter was also sold without any family because she was of age to have children, which was very common for young black females. (Tadman, 2005, p. 130). Without any concern at all for the fact that we are human beings or for the bonds we have to each other, the plantation owners bought and sold us like we were animals.
The loss of my husband and daughter were not unusual at that time and place. Virginia was one of the “exporting” states that sent slaves to other states. In exporting states, one in five marriages was destroyed and one in three children younger than fourteen years was separated from at least one parent (Tadman, 2005, p. 131). Still, the plantation owners who owned and sold us had to see themselves as benevolent, even as they raped us, separated us and destroyed our families. Consequently, many of slave owners had “key slaves,” certain slaves who received special privileges so the slave owners could deem themselves caring heads of black & white families. With the slave owners’ guilt assuaged, the rest of us could be treated cruelly or indifferently and sold off as people with “little sense of family” (Tadman, 2005, p. 132). The myth of the kindly slave owner has persisted because of their treatment of “key slaves” and because we have no effective voice as slaves.
2. Swap With Woman In English/European Family
I suddenly became an older, white woman who immigrated to the Chesapeake area in the earlier seventeen century when I was twenty years old. I was like most white women who immigrated to Virginia in the seventeenth century in that I came here as an indentured servant (Menard, 2001, p. 46). There was very little opportunity for me in England, so I came to the United States, bound for a four-year term to a tobacco planter near Richmond. I was told that I would not have to work in the fields but did, in fact, had to work very hard in the fields every day, cultivating tobacco (Menard, 2001, p. 46). The planter and I cohabited during my entire four-year contract. In the United States, there were political and religious leaders who insisted on formal marriages but their authority was limited in the backcountry where we lived. Immediately at the end of my contract, we married.
Marriage was very confining for me. The Chesapeake colonies followed coverture, in which my identity was absorbed into my husband’s. I took his name and had no separate legal identity, could not sue or be sued, could not hold public office or vote. My husband had legal control over my property, my children and my body (DuBois & Dumenil, 2016, p. 50). My husband was only forty years old when he died. Mortality rates are very high in the Chesapeake region throughout the seventeen century due to harsh conditions and diseases such as malaria and dysentery: men live to an average of forty-eight years and women to an average of thirty-nine. Fortunately, a woman who survives childbearing years tends to live much longer than men (DuBois & Dumenil, 2016, p. 48). I had one child, a son, during my marriage, and having survived childbearing years, I am now 51 years old.
When my husband died, I received my dower right — a third of his estate, and my son received two-third of his estate. Now I am feme sole and have at least some rights, making contracts, suing for debts and freely conducting my own business (DuBois & Dumenil, 2016, p. 50). After his death, I started cohabiting with another farmer (DuBois & Dumenil, 2016, p. 49). Consequently, I have two children, one of which was fathered by my husband and the other fathered by my current companion. I refuse to give up my feme sole rights and never intend to marry again. I am aware that many women who came here by indentured servitude, married, outlived their husbands and inherited by dower right cohabit and marry quickly, creating odd combinations of extended families (Menard, 2001, p. 48); however, I have no intention of losing the few individual rights I have gained and will never remarry. Meeting the black woman slave is a coincidence because I am in the market for my own slave. There is such a demand for indentured labor that the costs are driven up too high for me to comfortably pay. Consequently, much like other growers in the Chesapeake region, I am tapping into the new source of labor: the unfree labor of African slaves (Menard, 2001, p. xxv). Black slaves are a lucrative commodity and I am pursuing the economic benefits of owing some slaves.
3. Learning Taken Back To My Own Family
Reviewing the black female slave and the English indentured servant, it is clear to me that we all work very hard. They worked in literal fields of tobacco; I do not happen to work in a literal field but I certainly work in the difficult field of nursing and am pursuing my BSN, paying for it out-of-pocket while working and supporting my mother. Clearly, all three of us are on the “same page” when it comes to hard work in our fields. Beyond that, I have far less in common with the black female slave. We both have African roots in that her people were brought to America from Africa and I was born in the Democratic Republic of Congo but that is an accident of birth. I actually look at this black female servant across a wide chasm: I have a “ticket out” of my current life by earning my BSN but she has no way out. Even her closest relationships between her husband and child were trampled by the slave owners who treated them like cattle. Her experience makes me deeply resentful of and resistant to the culture in which she was forced to live. My freedom, my close relationship with my mother, my close relationship with my fiance and his dreams of education and advancement here in the United States, my close relationship with my faith, all make me detest the way she was forced to live for her entire life because other people could make money off her. What would I tell my family about my experience with the other culture? I would say that it was an evil, deadening culture that did not know the true value of a human being and I would say that I am profoundly grateful to be living here and now.
I have more in common with the white English woman. In some ways, she had a minor “ticket out” because she was able to come to America by choice, marry, have children that could not be taken from her, inherit and have some rights pertaining to feme sole. In that culture, it is little wonder that she has no intention of remarrying when coverture subjugates her to her husband. It also makes perfect economic sense in the context of her seventeenth century agricultural region that she would want her own slave. That does not mean I approve of it; I merely understand it. Ultimately, though, even with her modified “ticket out,” the English woman is more constrained than I would ever care to be and that I would ever have to be in modern America. My attitude and behavior toward that culture are somewhat milder than my attitude and behavior toward the black female slave’s predicament. However, I still have disdain for the white English woman’s oppressive culture toward woman and am thrilled and relieved to be living in a modern northern state in America.
Burns, K. (Director). (1990). The Civil War: The Cause [Motion Picture].
DuBois, E. C., & Dumenil, L. (2016). Through Women’s Eyes: An American History with Documents, 4th Ed. New York: Bedford/St. Martin’s.
Menard, R. R. (2001). Migrants, Servants and Slaves: Unfree Labor in Colonial British America. Farnham: Ashgate.
Tadman, M. (2005). The Interregional Slave Trade in the History and Myth-Making of the U.S. South. In W. Johnson, Chattel Principle: Internal Slave Trades in the Americas (pp. 117-142). New Haven: Yale University Press.
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!
We provide professional writing services to help you score straight A’s by submitting custom written assignments that mirror your guidelines.
Get result-oriented writing and never worry about grades anymore. We follow the highest quality standards to make sure that you get perfect assignments.
Our writers have experience in dealing with papers of every educational level. You can surely rely on the expertise of our qualified professionals.
Your deadline is our threshold for success and we take it very seriously. We make sure you receive your papers before your predefined time.
Someone from our customer support team is always here to respond to your questions. So, hit us up if you have got any ambiguity or concern.
Sit back and relax while we help you out with writing your papers. We have an ultimate policy for keeping your personal and order-related details a secret.
We assure you that your document will be thoroughly checked for plagiarism and grammatical errors as we use highly authentic and licit sources.
Still reluctant about placing an order? Our 100% Moneyback Guarantee backs you up on rare occasions where you aren’t satisfied with the writing.
You don’t have to wait for an update for hours; you can track the progress of your order any time you want. We share the status after each step.
Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.
Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.
From brainstorming your paper's outline to perfecting its grammar, we perform every step carefully to make your paper worthy of A grade.
Hire your preferred writer anytime. Simply specify if you want your preferred expert to write your paper and we’ll make that happen.
Get an elaborate and authentic grammar check report with your work to have the grammar goodness sealed in your document.
You can purchase this feature if you want our writers to sum up your paper in the form of a concise and well-articulated summary.
You don’t have to worry about plagiarism anymore. Get a plagiarism report to certify the uniqueness of your work.
Join us for the best experience while seeking writing assistance in your college life. A good grade is all you need to boost up your academic excellence and we are all about it.
We create perfect papers according to the guidelines.
We seamlessly edit out errors from your papers.
We thoroughly read your final draft to identify errors.
Work with ultimate peace of mind because we ensure that your academic work is our responsibility and your grades are a top concern for us!
Dedication. Quality. Commitment. Punctuality
Here is what we have achieved so far. These numbers are evidence that we go the extra mile to make your college journey successful.
We have the most intuitive and minimalistic process so that you can easily place an order. Just follow a few steps to unlock success.
We understand your guidelines first before delivering any writing service. You can discuss your writing needs and we will have them evaluated by our dedicated team.
We write your papers in a standardized way. We complete your work in such a way that it turns out to be a perfect description of your guidelines.
We promise you excellent grades and academic excellence that you always longed for. Our writers stay in touch with you via email.