Analogy of Racial Segregation
The consequences of past events can teach us lessons, shaping the way we think today. For instance, racial segregation, which was established by the Jim Crow laws of the Civil War period and ended in the 1960s with the Civil Rights Act, saw the public separation of blacks and whites. Lessons were learned in that the unethical condition of segregation was recognized, but nearly a century in waiting. Thus, the Jim Crow laws of the late nineteenth century, along with the reversal of the Civil Rights Act of 1875, were reexamined for their constitutionality, and the Civil Rights Act of 1965 ended the institution of racial segregation. Two cases to directly compare are Plessy v. Ferguson, which established the legal mode of “separate but equal,” and Brown v. Board of Education that ended racial segregation. The historical analogy of these two events demonstrates that history helps to define our actions, allowing us to learn from past mistakes and generate new and better ideas for the future.
The historical timeline leading up to the Civil War saw many stereotypical images of blacks portrayed as being inferior to whites. At the time, a minstrel show promoting a black character named “Jim Crow” was introduced, which became synonymous with other racial slurs used by whites to demonstrate black inferiority. By the end of the 1800s, the discriminatory legal practices became known as the Jim Crow laws, with the southern states writing constitutional provisions to declare the subordinate state of blacks. The majority of the Jim Crow laws were directed at segregating blacks in public areas, such as restaurants, schools, and buses, as well as preventing black males from voting. The Supreme Court further impacted the segregation laws by ruling the Civil Rights Act of 1875 unconstitutional, which had previously given freedom of “full and equal enjoyment” to “all persons.” The opinion stated that the Fourteenth Amendment did not apply to blacks, making segregation legal and coining the phrase, “separate but equal.” Thus followed segregation laws at the state level, and a national acceptance of racial separation.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title VII, which ended racial segregation in employment and public access, prohibited discrimination based on sex, race, national origin, or religion. Preceding this landmark event, several movements were made in the struggle against racism. In Brown v. Board of Education in Topeka (1954), the Supreme Court ruled that segregation in schools was unconstitutional. The following year, the Federal Interstate Commerce Commission banned segregation on public transportation in response to the bus boycott stimulated by Rosa Parks, a black woman who refused to be segregated on a bus. 1962 saw the Department of Defense integrate all military units. However, they did exclude the National Guard. While a number of riots followed the legalized end to racial segregation, it was only a few years later, in 1972, that the first black justice of the Supreme Court, Thurgood Marshall, was elected.
The opinions on racial segregation differed greatly from the times of the Jim Crow laws of the previous century to when the Civil Rights Act was rewritten in 1964. Chief Justice Joseph Bradley cited, when reviewing the Civil Rights Act of 1875, that the Fourteenth Amendment did not protect people from discrimination by individuals or private groups, only by the state. The court ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896, was another demonstration of legalized segregation, allowing separation of blacks and whites if equal accommodations were provided. The court’s decision further stalled the administration of civil rights for black Americans, granting legal authority to establish white superiority. For the next forty years, numerous anti-black actions followed, especially in the south, such as lynchings, chain gangs, and prison farms. The sentiment of black segregation and inferiority eventually changed as Americans were exposed to new ideas in equality, learned from the unfair practices and severe brutality that was the result of the Jim Crow laws and the judgment at the time that the Fourteenth Amendment was unconstitutional.
The civil rights struggle focused on reversing legal decisions made in the late 1800s, which were also supported for the first half of the 1900s. The eventual provision of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 ending racial segregation was the result of an accumulated effort to organize individuals and groups to resist the acceptance of “separate but equal.” The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) organized in 1909 with the mission to renew the civil and political liberties of all disadvantaged people, like the blacks who suffered the most under discrimination. The NAACP launched numerous public protests advocating the improved treatment of blacks. As the court cases that led up to legalized segregation established white dominance, the likewise assertion by groups like the NAACP and other civil-minded individuals, whites included, brought new cases to the Supreme Court. This turned the tide for the struggle against racial segregation. As mentioned, the case of Brown v. Board of Education, as well as Morgan v. Virginia of 1946, which disallowed segregation in public forms of transportation (train and bus), were landmark cases that changed the sentiment of racial segregation.
A comparative analysis of Plessy v. Ferguson of the 1800s and Brown v. Board of the 1900s can provide historical justifications for the legal actions taken towards discrimination and segregation during two different eras. In each of these cases the constitutionality of discrimination was examined. In Plessy, a Louisiana law permitted the segregation of railroad facilities, as long as each of the facilities was comparable to each other. This case determined that discrimination was not illegal. This system of “separate but equal” persisted until the Brown decision in 1954. In this case, the constitutionality of discrimination was again looked at, and the NAACP stepped in to request an injunction to prevent public schools in Topeka, Kansas from discriminating against children based on their race. Spurred by other civil rights actions of the times, the court’s decision determined that being separate was not a means of providing equality. It read, the “segregation of white and Negro children in the public schools…solely on the basis of race…denies to Negro children the equal protection of the laws guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment.” Even though the physical facilities of a public school may be considered “equal,” the segregation of children based on race (or any other trait) inhibits their gaining the same full access to education as whites. Thus, the social support during these two different eras saw opposing views on the equality and ethics of discrimination.
The historical disadvantages legally granted to blacks with the establishment of the Jim Crow laws and the Supreme Court ruling that the Civil Rights Act of 1875 was unconstitutional enforced racial segregation and socially supported discrimination against blacks. An analagous historical event was the situation that reconsidered the Civil Rights Act, ending legalized racial segregation in 1964. With the rulings in Plessy v. Ferguson legalizing “separate but equal,” and the later reversal of this condition with Brown v. Board of Education determining that segregation does not allow for full equality, the social context of the times can be analyzed against each other. This contrasting of two related events shows that the two eras saw differences in social concerns. America learned lessons from the events surrounding the end of slavery, determining that racial prejudice at that level was not a benefit to the country. In turn, as segregation was overruled, racial discrimination on a private level has continued. Thus, the course of history teaches us lessons in humanity, improving with each generation. Perhaps another hundred years of civil movements in history and advancements in social awareness will teach us to privately disallow racial discrimination as well.
The Civil Rights Movement. (1997). Retrieved March 22, 2004, from Cable News Network Inc.
Davis, RLF. Creating Jim Crow: An In-Depth Essay. Retrieved March 22, 2004, from The History of Jim Crow Website: http://www.jimcrowhistory.org/history/creating2.htm
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!
We provide professional writing services to help you score straight A’s by submitting custom written assignments that mirror your guidelines.
Get result-oriented writing and never worry about grades anymore. We follow the highest quality standards to make sure that you get perfect assignments.
Our writers have experience in dealing with papers of every educational level. You can surely rely on the expertise of our qualified professionals.
Your deadline is our threshold for success and we take it very seriously. We make sure you receive your papers before your predefined time.
Someone from our customer support team is always here to respond to your questions. So, hit us up if you have got any ambiguity or concern.
Sit back and relax while we help you out with writing your papers. We have an ultimate policy for keeping your personal and order-related details a secret.
We assure you that your document will be thoroughly checked for plagiarism and grammatical errors as we use highly authentic and licit sources.
Still reluctant about placing an order? Our 100% Moneyback Guarantee backs you up on rare occasions where you aren’t satisfied with the writing.
You don’t have to wait for an update for hours; you can track the progress of your order any time you want. We share the status after each step.
Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.
Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.
From brainstorming your paper's outline to perfecting its grammar, we perform every step carefully to make your paper worthy of A grade.
Hire your preferred writer anytime. Simply specify if you want your preferred expert to write your paper and we’ll make that happen.
Get an elaborate and authentic grammar check report with your work to have the grammar goodness sealed in your document.
You can purchase this feature if you want our writers to sum up your paper in the form of a concise and well-articulated summary.
You don’t have to worry about plagiarism anymore. Get a plagiarism report to certify the uniqueness of your work.
Join us for the best experience while seeking writing assistance in your college life. A good grade is all you need to boost up your academic excellence and we are all about it.
We create perfect papers according to the guidelines.
We seamlessly edit out errors from your papers.
We thoroughly read your final draft to identify errors.
Work with ultimate peace of mind because we ensure that your academic work is our responsibility and your grades are a top concern for us!
Dedication. Quality. Commitment. Punctuality
Here is what we have achieved so far. These numbers are evidence that we go the extra mile to make your college journey successful.
We have the most intuitive and minimalistic process so that you can easily place an order. Just follow a few steps to unlock success.
We understand your guidelines first before delivering any writing service. You can discuss your writing needs and we will have them evaluated by our dedicated team.
We write your papers in a standardized way. We complete your work in such a way that it turns out to be a perfect description of your guidelines.
We promise you excellent grades and academic excellence that you always longed for. Our writers stay in touch with you via email.