Great advancement has been made in addressing the issue of global food insecurity over the past few decades, partly because of great intensifications in the production of food from agricultural extension and increase. Food systems, nonetheless, encounter constant rises in demand and increasing environmental pressures. Most importantly, human-caused change in climate will affect the quantity and quality of food we produce and our capacity to allocate it equitably. Our ability to guarantee food security and nutritional sufficiency in the face of radically changing bio-physical conditions will be a main determining factor of the coming century’s global weight of disease. In this essay, aspects such as the role of population growth in food insecurity, major pathways that interfere with the flow of food from the origin to the individuals in Mexico, and the kinds of technology that may be used to lower hunger and enhance food insecurity on Mexico are addressed.
Food insecurity is simply defined as the condition of being minus dependable access to adequate quantity of affordable, nutritious food (Munesue, Masui, and Fushima, 2015). It is estimated that over 799 million persons live daily with food insecurity or hunger as their perpetual acquaintance. Approximately one in five people in Mexico are chronically starved, deprived of sufficient food to lead active lives and be healthy. This is regardless of the fact that sufficient food exists for all the people in the world. The cost of particular food items such as grain and meat, economic development, and agricultural policies greatly affect food security, but demographic drifts similarly have a role. An increasing number of person’s in Mexico frequently steer up food demand, which characteristically leads to supplementary use of water and arable land. This is particularly factual in the lack of enough production of food, integrated programs, and technology that concurrently address the needs of the community for reproductive health and food.
Mexico, which has a high population of persons encountering food insecurity, similarly has high proportions of population growth. This intensifies the challenge of sufficiently meeting nutritional demands. Even if the rates of fertility go down, the population of Mexico is estimated to be more than double by 2030. This nation likewise holds one of the highest percentages of food insecure individuals, with one in three persons being undernourished. Mexico has low productivity in agriculture and a high rate of persons living in poverty.
The production of food relies on the supply of water and croplands, which are under pressure with the increasing human population in Mexico. The strain on limited resources, that is majorly land, steered partly by population growth, may imply an extension of cropland. This usually entails damage of important forest resources or overutilization of arable land.
Mexico is turning out to be more urban. Even though urban inhabitants have accessibility to a wider range of foods, minus land to farm, their food security is reliant on their earning and capacity to buy food products. Poor people in Mexican urban regions spend up to 70% of the financial plan on food, and low earnings combined with high costs may escalate their threat of malnutrition and hunger (Mundo-Rosas, Shamah-Levy, and Rivera-Dommarco, 2013).
Population burdens in Mexican coastal regions are likewise influencing food security where there is a high reliance on fisheries for protein. Recent investigation has indicated that human burdens, comprising population growth, have negatively impacted the production of public fisheries. These fisheries had formerly availed up to 70% of regimen protein for residents in rural coastal regions in Mexico, and are presently on the decline. Simultaneously, worldwide fish intake has been on the rise, both in cumulative and per capita scopes.
The agricultural sector in Mexico, specifically, was affected when the nation of Mexico started supporting an export policy (Shamah-Levy, Mundo-Rosas, and Rivera-Dommarco, 2014). The government of Mexico then took up more radical efforts to reform policy to further engross the agricultural sector into the world market such as joining the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).
Moreover, due to the 2008 world fiscal crisis, the activity of the economy of Mexico declined. The GDP in Mexico fell cuttingly, and its economy withered by about 6% in 2009. Its food insecurity rate rose dramatically, from 12.7% in 2006 to 15.5% in 2010, retreating the decreasing drift of food insecurity from 1998. With the rise in the prices of food and a decrease in earning, food insecurity rose, and the social effect of the financial crisis had a greater effect amongst the most susceptible and poorest clusters.
Degreef (2018) denotes that several technologies may play a role in addressing issues linked to various scopes of food security. Existing and new technologies in Mexico to deal with abiotic and biotic pressures, increase livestock and crop productivity, make water obtainable and enhance soil fertility may potentially escalate the quantity of food produced. Refrigeration, storage, agro-processing inventions, and transport may address the dimension of food enhancing food use and utilization. Lastly, STI for climate change and variation comprising accurate agriculture, index-based cover and early cautionary schemes may address food instability.
Genetic adaptation of plant species may be used for nutrient strengthening, drought tolerance, diseases or pests, herbicides, and for increased produces. Earlier kinds of genetic adaptation in agriculture have entailed customary cross-breeding outlooks. Even though plant enhancements are limited to the best features obtainable in the same species of crops, such technology is still effective, particularly for smallholder farmers crosswise several regions in Mexico. Other nations besides Mexico, use customary cross-breeding alongside technology dissemination, to make staple crops more productive in adverse environmental and climatic conditions. For instance, the government of Peru has been executing a program from 1998 to genetically enhance cereals for sustainable production of crops.
Several post-harvest-loss technologies are effective for handling, storage, processing, and transport. Nanotechnology is in use in several projects within Mexico to enhance crop preservation (Loibl, Snyder, and Mountain, 2017). Venturing in the generation of local talent to form and mend small-to-medium-sized threshers may address the availability and affordability of harvest tools. Enhancing the capacities of smallholder farmers to yield for international and regional markets could possibly create the financial and economic stimulus to surpass smallholder farming status.
Improved management of environmental change, particularly lowering greenhouse gas releases and other contaminants, more viably handling fisheries, and enhancing productivity in the agrarian use of chemicals, water, and land, would mitigate the burden put on several food systems in Mexico.
Munesue, Y., Masui, T., & Fushima, T. (2015). The effects of reducing food losses and food waste on global food insecurity, natural resources, and greenhouse gas emissions. Environmental Economics & Policy Studies, 17(1), 43–77. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10018-014-0083-0
Mundo-Rosas, V., Shamah-Levy, T., & Rivera-Dommarco, J. A. (2013). Epidemiología de la inseguridad alimentaria en México. Salud Pública de México, 55, S206–S213. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=buh&AN=89675683&site=ehost-live
Shamah-Levy, T., Mundo-Rosas, V., & Rivera-Dommarco, J. A. (2014). La magnitud de la inseguridad alimentaria en México: su relación con el estado de nutrición y con factores socioeconómicos. Salud Pública de México, 56(Supp 1), S79–S85. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=buh&AN=96928743&site=ehost-live
Degreef, F. (2018). Understanding New Food Technologies and Trust in Food: Framing Analysis of Food Additives and Food Radiation (1960-1995). At the Interface / Probing the Boundaries, 97, 223–246. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ufh&AN=128895150&site=ehost-live
Loibl, C., Snyder, A., & Mountain, T. (2017). Connecting Saving and Food Security: Evidence from an Asset-Building Program for Families in Poverty. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 51(3), 659–681. https://doi.org/10.1111/joca.12137
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