Health and Ecological Effects of Turf Fields
These are a recent type of synthetic turf, covered by a grass-like ground that strongly resembles natural grass in looks and function (STC 2015). They are said to function this way on a year-round basis in all weathers and for prolonged use without need for recovery. Because it is synthetic, it is offered as a suitable solution and replacement for worn-out playing fields. At the same time, it does not need water or fertilizer as much as its natural counterpart. It is also available in different attractive styles, which match the locality (STC).
Sellers of artificial turf fields argue that natural grass fields cannot remain fresh and resilient if used for more than three to four days in a week, under the rain or when grass does not naturally grow (STC 2015). The low maintenance and water needs of a huge turf field for numerous sports teams and games have raised the demand for synthetic or artificial field turfs in schools and parks. About 8,000 of these synthetic turf sports fields are installed and used in North American schools, colleges, parks and sports stadiums (STC).
For their attraction in water savings and low maintenance, there is the more significant question on synthetic sports turf fields environmental safety as a suitable replacement or substitute for natural grass (Cheng et al. 2014). A synthetic turf field consists of infill materials, which come from scrap tires. These tires contain many organic contaminants and heavy metals, which when evaporate or leach into rainwater, can be a serious threat to human health and the environment. Some studies found that concentrations of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds in the air provide appeasing results to this apprehension. They concluded that the air over these artificial fields was not significantly higher than the natural in the background. The heavy metal concentrations and organic contaminants were generally lower than the regulated limits. These studies concluded that the use of artificial or synthetic sports field turfs does not expose users, such as athletes, to higher risks. Preliminary life cycle assessment even suggested that their effect on the environment was lower than that of natural grass fields. Further research was encouraged on the feared potential damaging effects of artificial turf fields (Cheng et al.).
Crumb Rubber Cushion
These synthetic turf fields are mostly cushioned with crumb rubber (Ginsberg et al. 2011). Rubber consists of components, which consist of poisonous and carcinogenic properties. Those using this type of turf fields can inhale these chemicals from rubber. Athletes are at a particular risk for their high breathing rates. Emissions from four outdoor and one indoor turf fields in the State of Connecticut were studied one summer. The study used different stationary and personal samples on-field and in background locations. Results showed that more than 20 chemicals of concern when associated with duration of exposure and activities producing greater ventilation among children and adults. Children were at a greater risk, especially on the indoor field. The study isolated benzothiazole, a semivolatile organic chemical or SVOC, as 14 times higher indoors than outdoors. The study concluded that the use of outdoor and indoor synthetic turf fields did not increase adverse health impacts. The results were consistent with those obtained from similar studies conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in New York and in Norway where synthetic sports turf fields were tested under different weather conditions (Ginsberg et al.).
Another study aimed at comparing artificial turf football fields and urban areas according to the concentration of PN10 and PM2.5 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aromatic hydrocarbons (BTXs), and the mutagenicity of organic derivatives from PM10 and PM2.5 (Schiliro et al. 2013). Results showed no significant differences between these concentrates in the urban location and in the football field, whether in warm or cold weather, during an activity or without (Schiliro et al.).
The findings noted significantly greater levels of PM2.5 in the urban location in cold weather; BTXx were significantly greater in the urban location than in the football turf fields in both warm and cold weathers; Toluene and benzene ratios were comparable to those under normal urban conditions; and PAH concentrations were comparable with those of the urban location in two different test periods.PM10 organic derivative mutagenicity in the football fields was greater but lower with PM2.5 organic extract mutagenicity (Schiliro et al. 2013). However, organic derivative mutagenicity in the fields and that in the urban sites was comparable. The study concluded that exposure to chemicals in artificial turf football fields was no greater than anywhere else in the city (Schiliro et al.).
A few more studies explored the bio-accessibility of definite contaminants in chosen samples of artificial turf fibers or crumb rubber in fill (Pavilonis et al. 2013). Bio-accessibility considers the maximum concentration of a soluble analyte in vitro synthetic bio-fluids. These fluids are similar to sweat, digestive juices and lung fluid to size up the effect on a person’s overall potential dose of these extracts (Pavilonis et al.).
No studies were previously done on the bio-accessibility of SVOCs or metals through all three exposure pathways, such as dermal, ingestion, and inhalation (Pavilonis et al. 2013). In response to this lack, one was conducted to determine if the bio-accessible fraction of metals and SVOCs in artificial turf fields was higher than the non-cancerous risk calculation for children and adult athletes (Pavilonis et al.).
study found no higher risk on health from artificial digestive fluid to extract metals and VOCs from crumb rubber in children (Pavilonis et al. 2013). It, however, found that PAHs had lower bio-accessibility and that lead and chromium were only a quarter and a half bio-accessible in the artificial turf (Pavilonis et al.).
Artificial or synthetic turf fields for sports and parks have been introduced to replace worn-out natural grass landscape for games. Games are good for health and physical activity as physical activity itself is a health factor. The rise in demand for these artificial replacements indicates the high-level of interest in sports and other games among the populace. Makers of these artificial turf fields and almost all recent studies are consistent in their pronouncement that the level of health risks that the components of these turf fields have are comparable to that in the background or other locations. It means that the use of these synthetic turf sports fields does not expose users to health risks any more than the natural environment exposes everyone to. The general public may relax its apprehension over the danger of exposure to them.
But even these studies, which provide evidence that health risks are not greater when exposed to these artificial turf fields, recommend further research to confirm and continue confirming their conclusions, based on their limited or representative samples. As activities mount, so will the demand and the production of synthetic turf fields. And the amount of toxic and carcinogenic chemicals in their components will correspondingly increase. Future studies may find other aspects or details that will warrant a more vigilant use of these artificial turf fields or its complete stop. One current research noted the greater increase of a toxic chemical in children who are exposed to them. They have gone indoors and, with confidence on the negative findings and conclusions of recent studies, people may relax their guard. No one should.
Cheng, H. et al. Environmental and Health Impacts of Artificial Turf: a Review. Vol. 48
number 4, Environmental Science and Technology, 2014. Retrieved on November 4, 2015
Ginsberg, G. et al. Human Health Risk Assessment of Synthetic Turf Fields, Based upon
Investigation of Five Fields in Connecticut. Vol. 74 number 17, Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A, 2011. Retrieved on November 4, 2015 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2179769
Pavilonis, Brian T. et al. Bioaccessibility and Risk of Exposure to Metals and SVOCs in Artificial Turf Field Fill Materials and Fibers. Risk Analysis, 2013. Retrieved on November 4, 2015 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4038666
Schiliro, T. et al. Artificial Turf Football Fields Environmental and Metagenicity Assessment.
Vol. 64 # 1, Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 2013. Retrieved on November 4, 2015 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.go/pubmed/23007896
STC. Frequently Asked Questions. Synthetic Turf Council, 2015. Retrieved on November 5,
2015 from http://www.syntheticturfcouncil.org/?page=FAQs
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!
We provide professional writing services to help you score straight A’s by submitting custom written assignments that mirror your guidelines.
Get result-oriented writing and never worry about grades anymore. We follow the highest quality standards to make sure that you get perfect assignments.
Our writers have experience in dealing with papers of every educational level. You can surely rely on the expertise of our qualified professionals.
Your deadline is our threshold for success and we take it very seriously. We make sure you receive your papers before your predefined time.
Someone from our customer support team is always here to respond to your questions. So, hit us up if you have got any ambiguity or concern.
Sit back and relax while we help you out with writing your papers. We have an ultimate policy for keeping your personal and order-related details a secret.
We assure you that your document will be thoroughly checked for plagiarism and grammatical errors as we use highly authentic and licit sources.
Still reluctant about placing an order? Our 100% Moneyback Guarantee backs you up on rare occasions where you aren’t satisfied with the writing.
You don’t have to wait for an update for hours; you can track the progress of your order any time you want. We share the status after each step.
Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.
Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.
From brainstorming your paper's outline to perfecting its grammar, we perform every step carefully to make your paper worthy of A grade.
Hire your preferred writer anytime. Simply specify if you want your preferred expert to write your paper and we’ll make that happen.
Get an elaborate and authentic grammar check report with your work to have the grammar goodness sealed in your document.
You can purchase this feature if you want our writers to sum up your paper in the form of a concise and well-articulated summary.
You don’t have to worry about plagiarism anymore. Get a plagiarism report to certify the uniqueness of your work.
Join us for the best experience while seeking writing assistance in your college life. A good grade is all you need to boost up your academic excellence and we are all about it.
We create perfect papers according to the guidelines.
We seamlessly edit out errors from your papers.
We thoroughly read your final draft to identify errors.
Work with ultimate peace of mind because we ensure that your academic work is our responsibility and your grades are a top concern for us!
Dedication. Quality. Commitment. Punctuality
Here is what we have achieved so far. These numbers are evidence that we go the extra mile to make your college journey successful.
We have the most intuitive and minimalistic process so that you can easily place an order. Just follow a few steps to unlock success.
We understand your guidelines first before delivering any writing service. You can discuss your writing needs and we will have them evaluated by our dedicated team.
We write your papers in a standardized way. We complete your work in such a way that it turns out to be a perfect description of your guidelines.
We promise you excellent grades and academic excellence that you always longed for. Our writers stay in touch with you via email.