Question One: Unlike handlooms, the steam looms were highly efficient in producing new uniforms. Indeed, the even most prolific weavers could not produce a piece of uniform that was even. In contrast, steam looms made outstandingly flawless uniforms since they worked uninterruptedly. As with all forms of mechanization, the steam looms rendered thousands of weavers jobless. Handlooms were made redundant and their handlers had to find other jobs. The steam loom also increased the demand for clothes since the average cost of garment decreased significantly.
Reading Folder TWO, Article One: The Creation of the steam Loom. Question Two: There were fears that the new technology would be impractical. For instance, regarding the issue of the spinning machinery, people were fearful that there would be a lot of unwoven cottons when the patent to the technology expired. When the idea to invent the weaving machine came, people were sceptical of its practicability. They did not comprehend how a manual job such as weaving cotton would be automated. In addition, they also feared that this new machine would take their jobs.
Reading Folder TWO, Article One: The Creation of the steam Loom. Question Three: Yes, these hopes and fears have materialized. Firstly, the expectation that much of the manual jobs will be done by machines has become a reality. Computers and robots have taken over most of the routine jobs in manufacturing that were previously done by technicians. The long-standing fear of human unemployment due to these technologies is also progressively becoming a reality as is witnessed by the low amount of human input that is needed in industries today.
Reading Folder TWO, Article One: The Creation of the steam Loom. Question Four: Manufacturers are described as appreciating the efficiency of the steam loom. The author states, “Cloth made by these Looms, when seen by those manufacturers who employ hand Weavers, at once excites admiration and consciousness that their own workmen cannot equal it” (Guest, 1968). The laborers are described as industrious and determined people who are good at their job. However, most workers are females and weaving was most likely perceived as a female job.
Reading Folder TWO, Article One: The Creation of the steam Loom. Question Five:These descriptions might have been influenced by the ongoing wave of Enlightenment where people were slowly appreciating scientific inventions. These descriptions may have effectively shaped people’s understanding of the scientific discoveries of the time and the appreciation of knowledge altogether.
Reading Folder TWO, Article Two: Protesting the Machines. Question One: The new machines had significant benefits as they reduced the cost of production by a huge percentage. According to the excerpt, one machine could do the work of ten men in twelve hours. On the downside, though, these machines deprived a huge population of their jobs. Most of the laborers in the industries were landless people from the lower-class. On the other hand, wealthy people, who owned the machines, realized significant savings in labor costs. As a result, the gap between the rich and the poor increased.
Reading Folder TWO, Article Two: Protesting the Machines. Question Two: Certain sections of the population hoped that these machines would not work. However, most people feared that mechanization would lead a vast number of people to unemployment.
Reading Folder TWO, Article Two: Protesting the Machines. Question Three: Yes, the fear that machines will replace human labor has materialized. Such isevidenced by the low usage of human labor in industries today. Automation and mechanization have become the norm, and human beings have been relegated to the service sector where machines cannot be employed.
Reading Folder TWO, Article One: Protesting the Machines. Question Four: The manufacturers are described as embracing these machines, which is why there are protests. Since they are only interested in wealth maximization, they benefited greatly from mechanization and automation as high output translated to moreprofit. The workers aredescribed as low-class citizens who are entirely dependent on the industries for sustenance. The protestor also characterizes them as paranoid and uncertain about the future.
Reading Folder TWO, Article One: Protesting the Machines. Question Five:These descriptions might have changed people’s understandings of the wealthy and lower-class groups. During this period, socialist sentiments started being popular. The description of workers who are referred to as proletariats by communists may have shaped the conception of such populations by communist thinkers.
Reading Folder TWO, Article Three: Napoleon and the Birth of Romanticism. Question One:According to Gill (2016), warfare during the Napoleonic era was not sophisticated even though the soldiers had the best weapons of the day. Napoleon was the commander of the Great Army and,except in the first few days when there were some instances of insubordination, his juniors had huge respect for him. The soldiers’ tactics, as well as their commitment, were effective and unquestionable respectively as evidenced by the many victories they had. However, the living conditions were abysmal. Notably, Napoleon’s soldiers often wore ill-fitting clothes and had to do with small rations that could not sustain the whole army.
Reading Folder TWO, Article Three: Napoleon and the Birth of Romanticism. Question Two:Soldiers and civilians often interacted quite amiably. The civilians were of significant help during certain wars. For instance, they helped sick troops by treating them and sheltering them. They also donated their resources to allow soldiers to fight efficiently. Further, civilians would give soldiers information about belligerents.
Reading Folder TWO, Article Four: Industrialization. Question One: The nineteenth century was an age of industrialization, which was profoundly enabled by scientific discoveries. If I lived during that period, I would most likely be a worker in one of the numerous factories. According to Boston and O’Grady (2015), working time would begin at five in the morning and end at nine in the evening. During the day, I would be provided with two small meals and a thirty-minute break to take these meals. The working conditions would be dire. Handling machinery without protective gear in a hazardous environment would be the order of the day. As a result, I would probably be a part of the numerous protests that took place during this period. I would also be subjected to some punishments when my output is low. Examples of such penalties include being lashed for working slowly, being dipped in cold water for looking too tired, and being whipped for chatting with a colleague. The long working hours coupled with the arduous work would significantly affect my family life.
Reading Folder TWO, Article Five: Alexis de Tocqueville: The New Social Morality. Question One:Tocqueville argues that egalitarianism impedes Christian morals. Specifically, he states, “there exists in the human heart a depraved taste for equality, which impels the weak to attempt to lower the powerful to their level, and reduces men to prefer equality in slavery to inequality with freedom” (De Tocqueville 2015). Tocqueville remarks that equality may be used to subvert the authority of those who are conventionally superior to others. For example, children may claim to be equal to their parents and thus deprive them of their authority.
Additionally, egalitarianism allows Christians to have as many multiple sexual partners as their appetites allow. From a Christian perspective, Tocqueville’s argument is compelling. The reason for this is that the religion is not materialistic and has no basis for relativistic presumptions that are widely supported by egalitarianism. Everything is submitted to God. However, in the Bible, there are several cases where God presents certain populations as being superior to others. Therefore, egalitarianism and its tenetsseem far-fetched in Christianity and would indubitably lead to bad consequences since it does not align with Christian teachings.
Reading Folder TWO, Article Six: Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels: Question One:
Max and Engels believe that the conflict between the proletariats and the bourgeoisie is different from previous class antagonism because it involves two huge classes. The modern bourgeois class arose from the feudal society of yore that controlled none-land owners and other less privileged people in the society. The constitution, formation, and intensity of previous class struggles aredifferent from the present. In feudal societies, feudal lords owned all agricultural land while serfs worked on the former’s fields. This dynamic has changed to owners of means of production and providers of labor for production. The shift from agriculture to the industrialization has created a whole new set of class antagonism, which is characteristically different from that in feudal societies. The owners of means of production are described as profit-oriented often at the expense of the working class which languishes in destitution. The ensuing disparity has created a high degree of animosity between these two social classes.
Boston, S., & O’Grady, F. (2015). Women workers and trade unions. Lawrence & Wishart.
De Tocqueville, A. (2015). Democracy in America-Vol. I. and II. Read Books Ltd.
Gill, J. H. (2016). A Soldier for Napoleon: The Campaigns of Lieutenant Franz Joseph Hausmann-7th Bavarian Infantry. Frontline Books.
Guest, R. (1968). Compendious history of the cotton manufacture. Augustus M. Kelley
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