Homeless Shelter Defense Training


Homeless shelter employees require a stronger defense to counter violence. This is as a result of the rising incidents of insecurity, particularly in the neighborhoods. In recent times numerous employees of homeless shelters have been attacked by assailants. A case in point is a woman employee of ABC Homeless shelter, located in a violent division of Harrisburg’s Hill neighborhood. The employee took several weeks for her jaw to restore to health following the daylight beating. She fears retribution from the attacker, who is still at large. The homeless shelter ought to be a safe haven. However, employees are taking into consideration security upgrades following the recent acts of hostility against its residents and employees.

Lesson Plan and Transfer of Training

Training at the XYZ Defense Training Center should be regarded as an investment in self-improvement. The center provides regular classes, private workshops or training, whereby the participants learn the most efficient, practical, and extremely refined self-defense techniques. This training enables an individual to defend themselves as well as other persons in diverse situations (Burney, 2008). The Classes at the XYZ Defense Training Center are structured in order to provide personalized attention as well as instruction to guide participants during the training. The training in self-defense entails the following;

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  1. Muay ThaiMuay Thai which is a martial art that originates from Thailand. This is a national sport in Thailand and a certified event in the Asian Indoor Games.
  2. Boxing, this is a combat-related sport as well as a striking system.
  3. Aerobic Kickboxing or Cardio Kickboxing this is one of the admired fitness trends in contemporary health clubs.
  4. Wrestling, this is a very old martial art that utilizes grappling type skills. Wrestling techniques are incorporated in the military combat systems as well.
  5. Grappling, this is a mix of styles that comprise techniques such as Judo, Sambo, Jiujitsu as well as Olympic Wrestling.
  6. Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, this is a combat sport and martial art that centers on ground fighting.
  7. Mixed Martial Arts, this is a combat sport that facilitates a broad variety of combat skills and techniques from an assortment of martial arts.

This training will be attended by all employees at ABC Homeless shelter. The training will be conducted by qualified trainers from XYZ Defense Training Center. See Appendix 1.

The Cost-Benefit of Training

While it’s simple to document the finances spent on employee training, computing training benefits is complex because every employee brings different benefits from the training. An employer may implement several steps in order to translate subtle benefits into figures that mirror positively on the bottom line. Evaluating training costs to the generated savings helps in justifying the expenses. In general, the benefits accrued in training validate the expenditure accrued in training (Nichols, 2009).

Generally, the savings cost for every participant surpasses the training expenditure for every participant, particularly when measured over time. Generating the necessary metrics helps human resource managers in computing the actual expenditure as well as realistic benefits, including savings. Running these programs for chosen employees and determining a rational rate of enhanced performance facilitates a manager to compute savings and recognize changes in attitudes and behavior following the training (Yoram, 2008).

In computing the savings, the errors may be reduced from 100 to 50 in each month. If it now requires one hour attending to each of the 50 problems, multiplied by $20 for every hour for labor, it will equal to $1,000 for each month. That represents savings of $1,000. The manager ought to identify when the savings occur, for instance, three months following the training. Compute the total projected savings by dividing the total savings by the number of participants to make out the savings per employee (Nichols, 2009).

Return on Investment

Return on investment (ROI) refers to a measure of the financial benefits realized by an organization in the course of specified duration in return for specific investment in a training program. ROI is the level to which the outputs (benefits) of training surpass the inputs (costs). ROI may be utilized to rationalize a designed investment as well as to evaluate the scope to which the projected return was attained. However, ROI cannot compute all facets of training success, such as whether or not the participants liked the training. ROI cannot also compute the level to which the participants’ individual objectives were attained (Daniel, 2009).

Carrying out financial ROI evaluation of training is a contentious issue. It’s a complex task execute in absolute terms owing to the numerous aspects that require consideration. Some of the aspects would be impossible to accurately quantify, or even to define in strictly financial terms. Attaching a monetary value and connecting this to a single training program, is usually impossible. Therefore, several training ROI evaluations are fundamentally best estimates. In the event that ROI-type computations are required in aspects whereby reliable monetary evaluation is impossible, it is prudent to adopt a notional indicator or a best possible approach (Weiss, 2008).

If absolutely quantifiable data is not available, a useful notional indication should be provided. One may refer to the original training needs analysis that impelled the training in the first place. In this case, consider the performance factors that were anticipated to be improved by the training.  These original drivers should be utilized to gauge and relate to the organizational return attained (Cooper & Schindler, 2003).

Transfer of Training

Transfer of training refers to the benefits that are put into use the training participants in regard to the knowledge and skills learned to their work practices (Phelps, 2007).

Following the self-defense training offered at the XYZ Defense Training Center, the homeless shelter employees will be in a better position to handle any type of aggression that they encounter. The employees are now confident that they are better equipped to defend themselves in case of any forms of aggression, considering that the shelter is located in a highly volatile neighborhood.


It is vital to assess the outcomes of training programs. The participants ought to be made aware of the objectives of the program, and upon completion of the training, they must be to appraise the impact of the training. Evaluation in any program is a complex task, and especially, training programs. The primary step towards the evaluation of training programs is to define the objectives of the program. These objectives ought to be stated in a format that they may be statistically measured. The trainer, as well as the trainees, must be acquainted with their roles in the training program (Keller, 2002). The foremost requirement is to compile valid as well as reliable data. In this case, interviews and questionnaire techniques would be most efficient. The evaluation of the training, in this case, would be executed by the use of questionnaires.

Questionnaires appear in all types of surveys and research. Hence, it is extremely fundamental that the questionnaire should be framed with extreme care. This is important in order that it evaluates the variables in precisely the way it is designed for. Following properly framed designing, a pretest should be conducted in order to investigate whether the questions denote the same thing in the perspective of the trainee and the trainer. In the event that the questionnaire is found to be inappropriate, the questionnaire must be redesigned, and a subsequent pilot survey conducted. In the event that the questionnaire is found to be appropriate, the full survey ought to be conducted. The questionnaire must be redesigned if found to be inappropriate. The validity, as well as the reliability of the questionnaire, must be accurately evaluated prior to executing full surveys. In regard to the compilation of data, it is critical to plan the data collection process.

Three key factors should be considered in the evaluation study. The first factor concerns the evaluation study’s internal stability. This refers to how accurately the study gauges what the study aims to achieve. This usually entails the appropriateness and adequacy of the measuring instrument. External validity comprises the second factor. This involves the extent to which the findings may be applicable beyond the sample population involved in the survey. The conclusion achieved on the basis of collected data should be universally applicable. On the contrary, the compiled data must have the validity as well as the reliability to the extent that its findings are applicable to similar situations (Cooper & Schindler, 2003).

The third factor concerns reliability. The evaluation study’s reliability is the extent to which the outcomes would be replicated. The obvious technique is to repeat tests as well as observations. Techniques, like incorporating the same questions but in dissimilar forms or utilizing multiple, observes can be useful. The fourth factor is to carry out and determine reaction levels of the trainees in regards to the training program. The reaction criterion should be established in terms of open dialogue between the trainees, trainers, as well; as the management. This will present sufficient prospects to the management to determine whether or not the program is realizing the presupposed objectives. This kind of evaluation ought to be conducted in the middle of the training duration (Phelps, 2007). The reaction criterion has a tendency to enlighten the trainers if the training program is attaining the goals as perceived. In other words, the trainers would be able to ascertain the satisfaction level of the trainees as regarding the training program. To establish and accumulate this type of information, the trainees would be required to fill out a self-complete questionnaire. This is whereby the trainees would be expected to decide between varieties of alternatives and respond to a number of the open-ended questions.

It is essential to consider that, the self-fulfilled questionnaire inquire about information as pertains to entry briefing. This refers to whether the goals of the training program were attained, and how far they have been constructive. It also evaluates whether the performance of the trainers has been acceptable, and also the utility of the training methods. In the event of any discrepancies, the mid-term assessment facilitates the trainers in reframing the training methodology, as well as and accommodate to the trainees’ needs accordingly (Thomchick, 2005). See Appendix 2.

Training Methods

Training programs improve employees’ performance. The selection of the appropriate methods of training to incorporate in training programs is imperative for several reasons. There are numerous dissimilar methods of training that may be utilized in improving proficiency in self-defense.  What needs to be considered is the duration and intensity of energy use in the chosen martial art. The different kinds of training entail activities that may last for different durations of time (Demsetz, 2003).

The training method that is adopted in this paper is coaching or mentoring. Coaching/mentoring provides the employees with a chance to get one-on-one training from a qualified professional. This generally occurs after a more formal training process has taken place in order to develop on what the trainees have already been familiarized with (Velasquez, 2010). Coaching/mentoring provides the trainees the opportunity to ask questions as well as receive comprehensive and candid answers. This may not be possible in a classroom setting with a group of trainees. When mentoring relationships develop between the coach and his student, a unique connection is instituted beyond the communal objectives for competitive success. In this case, the coach as a mentor endeavors to direct the trainee towards success. While assuming on a mentorship role with one trainee is time-consuming, it provides considerable benefits to the two parties. Mentoring relationships may be reciprocally transforming for both mentee and the mentor, as each transforms toward improved self-actualization (Reichenberg, 2009).

The benefit to the mentoring method is that the mentor may institute trust in the association devoid of risking a loss of reverence from the trainee. A coach is fundamentally the team leader and would thus make ostracized decisions several times in the course of the training period. Maintaining an aspect of professional detachment between the coach and the trainees preserves the authority of the coach. A major disadvantage in this model is the aspect of dependency. It is evident in mentoring relationships that the usually draw into narcissistic facets of self. This means that, the trainees may subconsciously become excessively dependent on the control of their coach, and sequentially, coaches may find it difficult to release their trainees when the direction of the coach is no longer required (Chase, 2001). See Appendix 3.

Other Methods of Training

Videos & Films

Videos and films may be utilized in combination with other methods of training, or on their own. To be really effective, training videos and films ought to be geared towards a particular objective. Only when they are produced efficiently, will they maintain the trainee’s attention. Videos and films are also efficient in stimulating dialogue on particular issues following the conclusion of the video or film. Videos and films are good instruments for training, but they also have several disadvantages. The most critical disadvantage is the lack of interaction between the trainees and the trainer.  Screening a video of film from an external source may not tap on the pertinent issues that directly affect a specific company. The trainees may perceive the information quite interesting but inappropriate to their situation in the company. Several trainers prefer to screen videos as a break from a different training method (Stapleton, 2000). See Appendix 3.

Tutorials & Group Discussions

Tutorials and group discussions mostly occur in a classroom setting whereby a group of individuals discusses issues. For instance, if an unusual program is to be executed, a group discussion concerning the new program may permit employees to pose questions. The employees would also have an opportunity to offer ideas on their perceptions on the way the program would realize the most appropriate outcomes. Tutorials and group discussions allow every trainee to talk about issues that concern the new training program. It also facilitates every participant to voice diverse ideas (Gattorna, 2009). See Appendix 3.




Regardless of the selected model, the evaluation of training programs has definite aims to accomplish. These are related to the establishment of change in organizational behavior as well as the change necessary in the organizational structure. For this reason, evaluation of training programs must enlighten us on whether the training program has in reality been able to accomplish the objectives and goals in terms of expenditure incurred as well as benefits attained (Easterby, 2009).









Burney, S. (2008).  Inductive & Deductive Research Approach, Karachi: University Of Karachi.   Press.

Chase, A. (2001).Production & Operations Management, New York: Homewood Press. 2000.

Cooper & Schindler. (2003). Business Research Methods, New York: McGraw-Hill.

Daniel, H. (2009). The S Corporation Financial Adjustment. Handbook of Business Appraisal &   Intellectual Property Evaluation, New York, McGraw Hill.

Demsetz, H. (2003). Property Rights Paradigm, London: Sage.

Easterby, S. (2009). Management Research, London: Sage. 2005.

Gattorna, H. (2009). Contemporary Training Methods, Prentice Hall, Harlow, Essex.

Nichols, E. (2009). Introduction to SCM, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Keller, S. (2002). Management Outsourcing Guide, New York: McGraw-Hill.

Phelps, T. (2007).Organizing & Managing Training Programs: A Practical Guide, London:          Sage.

Reichenberg, L. (2009). Systems, Skills & Strategies and Skills, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Stapleton, D. (2000). Strategic Management, London: Sage.

Thomchick, E. (2005). Business Management: Planning and Control, Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Velasquez, M. (2010). Business Ethics Concepts & Cases, Upper Saddle River: Pearson    Education.

Weiss, F. (2008). Elementary Statistics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton U.P.

Yoram, B. (2008). Economic Rights & the Capacity of the State. N. Y: Free Press.




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