Interscholastic Sports & Academics
What effect if any do interscholastic sports have on a young person’s academic achievements? A great deal of the literature indicates that playing interscholastic sports can help a student become more proficient and successful in his or her academic pursuits. This paper references studies that present the facts regarding the mainly positive effects that interscholastic sports can have on a middle school or high school student’s success in the classroom.
An article in Kappa Delta PI Record (Lumpkin, et al., 2010, p. 124) references the National Federation of State High School Associations’ (NFHS) data that shows “â€¦more than 7,000,000 interscholastic athletes in the United States” are doing better academically than students that are not out for sports. Lumpkin refers to NFHS data that shows: a) those seven million students overall “have higher grade-point averages“; b) they also have “lower dropout rates, better daily attendance, and fewer discipline problems” than those not playing sports (pp. 124-125).
The article by Lumpkin is directed towards interscholastic coaches, and among the issues that the author asks coaches to stress is that while “winning” is important, winning is “often overemphasized” (p. 125). The point needs to be reinforced that coaches need to “â€¦Stress academic achievement first and foremost,” Lumpkin explains on page 125).
Meanwhile Patricia Lyons-Daniels’ research shows that participation in sports gives the adolescent an opportunity to enhance his or her “â€¦self-esteem, self-efficacy, competence, academic achievement and fitness” (Lyons-Daniels, 1999, p. 12). Students who go out for sports in middle school, the level of education that Lyons-Daniels investigates, find out that the competitive demands of competitive athletics tends to “â€¦mirror other life experiences” (12). In fact sports often results in “â€¦the development of positive self-esteem and self-conceptâ€¦ how an individual perceives his or her self,” Lyons-Daniels continues. Why is self-esteem and self-concept important for middle school children? The “prestige” that often comes from doing well in sports can produce a “more positive self-concept” which can lead to “higher aspirations in academics” (Lyons-Daniels, 13).
The author of this article references the research of Harter (1982), Klint & Weiss (1987) and Ewing & Seefelt (1990), to assert that students with a strong sense of physical competence posses “higher perceptions of self-efficacy” (14). And students playing sports, who perceive themselves as competent, tend to make judgments about their level of competence in “scholastic performance, physical performance, and peer relationships” (14). Additional research links competency to motivation, and hence, the desire for a middle school student to be competent is one of the “most frequent motives for participating in sports activities,” Lyons-Daniels continues (14).
Lyons-Daniels mentions research by Lee et al. (1991) that concluded there is a “positive relationship” between “academic achievement and pro-academic behaviors for African-American students” (17). The behaviors that improved when engaged in sports were “better homework habits, attitude toward school, cooperation with teachers, and study habits” (17). In fact, Hawkins’ (1992) research, referenced by Lyons-Daniels, indicated that participation in sports in middle school “is positively associated with the aspirations of African-American eighth-grade males to enroll in college preparatory programs” (17).
The research by Stern, et al., reflects a study by Stegman and Stephens (2000) that reported high school athletes that played at least one sport in each of their four years “â€¦ outperformed low-participant athletes in class rank, overall GPA, and math GPA” (Stern, et al., 2008, p. 190). Another research project that Stern brings to light shows that athletes that participated in interscholastic sports “for many seasons and many years” had a “higher level of scholarship” than athletes that just played sports for one year (190).
Stern references statistics from the U.S. Department of Education’s National Center for Educational Statistics; that information — based on data from 10,944 eighth grade students — showed “a significant relationship between co-curricular participation and academic achievement” (191). Yet another study of 8th graders — this one in a middle school in Omaha, Nebraska during the 1998-99 school year — showed that “Both male and female athletes had significantly higher GPAs than non-athletes of the same sex,” Stern reports (191).
Not all research indicates that there is clearly a strong relationship between playing sports and doing well in the classroom. Professor Feng S. Din of the University of Virginia conducted a study of five high schools in rural areas of Kentucky, in the Appalachian Mountains area. The professor selected 225 students that played basketball, football, baseball, track, volleyball, softball and cheerleading. Four of the six teams selected were boys and 2 were girls’ teams. The grades of all 225 students were noted before and after sports seasons.
“A very small number of students achieved slightly lower grades at the end of the sports season, and several students received higher grades in some courses,” Din explained (Din, 2006, p. 6). In fact, in his Discussion, Din reported that “Generally speaking, participating in school-sponsored sport activities did not make any changes on the participating students’ learning outcomes” (p.9). The grades of most students “remained basically unchangedâ€¦ their participating in sport activities did not seem to have any impact on their academic learning,” Din concluded.
While author Ron Woods views high school interscholastic sports as a positive, he also sees a downside to sports in high school. On the positive side, Woods notes that his investigations reflect that high school students out for competitive sports “tend to have” higher grade point averages, lower rates of dropping out of school and stronger records as far as school attendance (Woods, 2007, p. 121). The Women’s Sports Foundation and several states’ sports foundations have verified these facts that Woods has presented.
In “virtually every segment of the U.S. population,” Woods continues, there is “strong support” for interscholastic athletics (121). Indeed, sports as part of the educational experience for middle school and high school students continues to be “â€¦a critical factor in the personal development of young people,” the author goes on. However, he cautions, a “fair and comprehensive analysis of high school sport reveals both positive and negative effects of participation” (Wood, 121). By that he means that because high school populations typically include “cliques,” sports can sometimes create “disunity” (121).
In other words, Woods is saying athletic cliques can become like separate cultures within the culture of the high school, and there can be resentment and even bullying when other cliques challenge the sports cliques or somehow get on the bad side of them.
While Ron Woods may be somewhat correct in his assertion that interscholastic sports can create “disunity,” his point misses the big picture. Most research shows that as a general rule, student athletes tend to do better in the classroom than non-students. With all the distractions that are out there for adolescents in 2011 (digital technologies, video games, movies, parties, cars, sex, drugs, alcohol), playing sports is a wonderfully fulfilling experience. Indeed, there can be no question that in a vast majority of cases, interscholastic sports are healthy, motivating, and academically productive for students.
Din, Feng S. (2006). Sport Activities vs. Academic Achievement for Rural High School
Students. National Forum of Applied Educational Research Journal-Electronic, 19(3E),
Lumpkin, Angela, and Stokowski, Sarah. (2011). Interscholastic Sports: A Character-Building
Privilege. Kappa Delta Pi Record. Retrieved June 19, 2011, from http://www.kdp.org/publications/pdf/record/sp11/Record_Sp_11_Lumpkin.pdf.
Lyons-Daniels, Patricia. (1999). Interscholastic Sports and the Middle School Student: A Case
Study. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Retrieved June 19, 2011, from http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-120299-170148/unrestricted/mssports.pdf.
Stern, Barbara Slater, and Kysillka, Marcella L. (2008). Contemporary Readings in Curriculum.
Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
Woods, Ron. (2007). Social Issues in Sport. Champaign, ILL: Human Kinetics.
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!
We provide professional writing services to help you score straight A’s by submitting custom written assignments that mirror your guidelines.
Get result-oriented writing and never worry about grades anymore. We follow the highest quality standards to make sure that you get perfect assignments.
Our writers have experience in dealing with papers of every educational level. You can surely rely on the expertise of our qualified professionals.
Your deadline is our threshold for success and we take it very seriously. We make sure you receive your papers before your predefined time.
Someone from our customer support team is always here to respond to your questions. So, hit us up if you have got any ambiguity or concern.
Sit back and relax while we help you out with writing your papers. We have an ultimate policy for keeping your personal and order-related details a secret.
We assure you that your document will be thoroughly checked for plagiarism and grammatical errors as we use highly authentic and licit sources.
Still reluctant about placing an order? Our 100% Moneyback Guarantee backs you up on rare occasions where you aren’t satisfied with the writing.
You don’t have to wait for an update for hours; you can track the progress of your order any time you want. We share the status after each step.
Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.
Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.
From brainstorming your paper's outline to perfecting its grammar, we perform every step carefully to make your paper worthy of A grade.
Hire your preferred writer anytime. Simply specify if you want your preferred expert to write your paper and we’ll make that happen.
Get an elaborate and authentic grammar check report with your work to have the grammar goodness sealed in your document.
You can purchase this feature if you want our writers to sum up your paper in the form of a concise and well-articulated summary.
You don’t have to worry about plagiarism anymore. Get a plagiarism report to certify the uniqueness of your work.
Join us for the best experience while seeking writing assistance in your college life. A good grade is all you need to boost up your academic excellence and we are all about it.
We create perfect papers according to the guidelines.
We seamlessly edit out errors from your papers.
We thoroughly read your final draft to identify errors.
Work with ultimate peace of mind because we ensure that your academic work is our responsibility and your grades are a top concern for us!
Dedication. Quality. Commitment. Punctuality
Here is what we have achieved so far. These numbers are evidence that we go the extra mile to make your college journey successful.
We have the most intuitive and minimalistic process so that you can easily place an order. Just follow a few steps to unlock success.
We understand your guidelines first before delivering any writing service. You can discuss your writing needs and we will have them evaluated by our dedicated team.
We write your papers in a standardized way. We complete your work in such a way that it turns out to be a perfect description of your guidelines.
We promise you excellent grades and academic excellence that you always longed for. Our writers stay in touch with you via email.