Employment Discrimination at Wal-Mart
Foundation of the Study
This study examines the legislative and judicial climate that enables corporations like Wal-Mart to engage in practices that violate workers’ rights. The popular consensus is that Wal-Mart, the largest retail store in the United States, displays an inordinate disregard for the human dignity and morale of its employees and, despite continual litigation, continues to blatantly violate the legal rights of its employees. Wal-Mart faces charges of violating The Federal Fair Labor Standards Act (2011) by asking management to adjust time sheets so that overtime will not need to be paid, and so that all employees will work under the hourly limit required by the union in order to obtain membership. Employees were insured, without their knowledge, against their death by Wal-Mart. The company was named beneficiary; following death of an employee, the entire benefit amount was retained by the corporation. Not a single cent was offered to the family members of the deceased.
Wal-Mart has deep pockets and little regard for lawsuits. The Human Rights Watch (2011) said that Wal-Mart employs strategies that are illegal, patently violating employees’ rights. Wal-Mart is alleged to purchase clothing and other cheap items from shops in foreign countries where few safeguards for workers exist. A television broadcast showed Wal-Mart transacting business with a shop that employs children to make clothing (Sellers, 2005). Fair Labor Standards lawsuits have been filed in many states, some of which have been settled to avoid encouraging similar action in other states. Many women employees of Wal-Mart have filed complaints of sexual discrimination, citing incidences of unequal pay, blocked opportunities for promotion, and grievance policies that lead to harsher treatment by superiors.
Background of the Problem.
The Wal-Mart grievance policy is tantamount to a policy for culling troublesome employees. Grieving employees have made their stories public, explaining that when employees do work up the nerve to complain, the outcome is never a good one for the employee. Figuratively, an employee’s first grievance becomes the last of their complaints that will be heard at the retailing giant. Literally, as reported by many employees, grievance results in a path of increased discrimination peppered by a series of demotions, denials of promotional opportunity, and eventual termination.
On behalf of 1.6 million women who worked at Wal-Mart from 1998 to 2001, Betty Dukes filed a class action lawsuit, Betty Dukes vs. Wal-Mart Stores, 2004, that eventually made its way to the highest Court in the United States. Wal-Mart has been fighting the lawsuit for since 1999. The Supreme Court is due to write a decision on the case in June of 2011 (Liptak, 2011). Betty Dukes’ story highlights the ills that can befall female employees of the Wal-Mart behemoth. But in a larger sense, Betty Dukes’ story exemplifies the corporate climate that enables executives and stockholders to focus inordinately on corporate profits and building the wealth of its stockholders while sacrificing the public good and ignoring the employment laws of the land.
Betty Dukes’ Wal-Mart experiences. Betty Dukes is a 52-year-old African-American woman who was hired by Wal-Mart in 1994 as a part-time cashier. She was, by all reports, an admirer of the Wal-Mart enterprise and its founder’s “visionary spirit” (Featherstone, 2004). After a year of employment, Dukes was promoted to a full-time position as customer service manager and granted a merit pay raise. In this new position, ostensibly under different supervisors, Dukes began to experience “harsh” discrimination and was denied training opportunities that would enable her to advance further. These training opportunities were granted to her male peers. Once Dukes began to express complaints about the discrimination she was experiencing, discrimination escalated to harassment. She was docked for minor offenses that went unnoticed when performed by male co-workers (Luce, 2005). As Dukes continued to press for equal treatment, she was denied promotion and demoted back to her job as a cashier. An appeal to the Wal-Mart district office brought no relief. Dukes was humiliated by the demotion and lost significant wages due to fewer hours and lower hourly pay. The discrimination that Dukes was experiencing extended to other employees in her workplace; four new management positions were never posted, but were filled by men (Featherstone, 2004). Today, (as of the 2004 publication of Featherstone’s book), Betty Dukes works as a greeter for Wal-Mart functions as an associate minister at her Baptist Church, and is the lead plaintiff in the class action suit filed against Wal-Mart for discrimination based on sex (Featherstone, 2004).
Supreme Court’s task. Duke’s workplace discrimination problems have entered a new phase where the Supreme Court will weigh the issues surrounding the case. Duke’s class-action suit poses several dilemmas to the Court. The plaintiff must provide sufficient grounds for the Court to identify adequate commonality to pass the tests for a class-action suit (Liptak, 2011, March 29). The Court will need to determine if the social framework analysis proposed by the plaintiff to show how Wal-Mart’s policies may have led to discrimination is, in fact, a viable approach to apply to the class-action suit (Liptak, 2011, March 27). The defendant’s attorneys assert that it is not an appropriate or researched application of the social framework; the plaintiff’s attorneys argue that it is. Both sides have enlisted the support of attorneys and social scientists who have experience with the approach.
The Supreme Court is not currently tasked with determining if Wal-Mart did, in fact, discriminate against the women who worked for them (Liptak, 2011, March 29). Instead, the debate has shifted to a new case, Wal-Mart Stores v. Dukes, No. 10-277, where the justices must determine if the hundreds of thousands of women workers can demonstrate that their experiences are sufficiently common to allow them to join together in a single law suit. In filing her case as a civil action case, Betty Dukes has opened a Pandora’s box of judicial considerations that are playing out against a backdrop, in Justice Samuel A. Alito’s words, where potentially “every single companyâ€¦typical of the entire American workforceâ€¦is in violation of Title VII” (Liptak, 2011, March 29) of the Civil Rights Act. As will be seen, this observation is, in fact, the driver for the research proposal in this paper.
The Court has shown itself to be largely pro-business (Times Topics, Justice Kennedy, Justice Roberts, Justice Scalia, 2011), save a few “series of recent rulings in favor of plaintiffs suing for employment discrimination” (Liptak, 2011). Several of the Justices took issue with the way the defense portrayed Wal-Mart’s employment policies, saying that they could not at once be subjectively discretionary and exemplify a corporate culture that permeates and dictates managerial policy across the many stores and the many affiliated supplier and distributor relationships (Featherstone, 2004). But new management at Wal-Mart receives handouts that guide managers in how to select employees and how to motivate and inspire employees while holding the line against unionization (Featherstone, 2004).
The justices are sensitive to the ramifications of their decisions for other American businesses. Substantive discord is generated by the fact that the parties originally harmed were individuals working for an immense international corporation, yet the justices seem preoccupied with not only the impact on the defendant in this case, but on other corporations that could potentially find themselves similarly named in a lawsuit (Liptak, 2011, March 29). In taking this stance, the Court could very well protect the status quo, in which women are routinely the target of severe discrimination (McGeeham, 2004, DealBook, “suit,” 2010, DealBook, “3 women,” 2010), and create a chilling effect on any other female disputants who have experienced discrimination. The Court, which is the most conservative in living memory, (Times Topics, 2011) will, by whatever action it takes, create president.
Women Workers’ Rights Issues at Wal-Mart.
The issues related to the violation of workers’ rights at Wal-Mart are not new to this country. In fact, they hark back to the not very distant past when American workers learned the hard way that if they were to be safe in their work environments, if they were to make living wages, if they were to be free of discrimination in the workplace, they must unionize. The relationship between workplace safety and collective bargaining may best be put in perspective by recalling the Triangle Fire in New York State (Estrin, 2011).
On March 25, 1911, 146 young women were burned to death or died by jumping to their deaths to escape a fire in a multi-story building in which the exit doors and doors to the stairwells had been locked by the managers in what would turn out to be the fourth highest industrial loss of life in an industrial accident in the U.S. (“Remembering, Cornell Web exhibit, 2010). This tragedy subsequently led to legislation protecting factory workers and the establishment of the International Ladies’ Garment Workers Union. While many manufacturing woes have been passed over to foreign manufacturers running sweatshops, the welfare of U.S. public employees is firmly dependent on employment-related decisions made and implemented on domestic soil.
The same mean-spirited attitude toward women workers that contributed to the Triangle factory fire, the same disregard for the health and safety of women workers that caused manager to lock exit and stairwell doors, and the same willingness to sacrifice workers to improve profitability is evident in the culture and operations of the giant Wal-Mart enterprise. But more than a handful of young ladies sewing garments in a classic version of a sweatshop are caught up in the Wal-Mart debacle. More than one million workers are employed at Wal-Mart, the majority of whom are women (Gary, 2011, Jay, 2011).
Part and parcel of the workers’ rights violations at Wal-Mart is the patent discrimination against women workers. “In 1999, women constituted 72% of Wal-Mart’s hourly employees, but only 33% of its managerial employees” (Bhatnagar, 2004). Employee grievances of any type at Wal-Mart appear to result in punitive managerial actions, up to and including dismissal. But grievances related to sexual discrimination in wages and promotions are treated particularly harshly, such that, a female employee at Wal-Mart who grieves her situation may find herself locked into a spiral of wage-diminishing demotions and a complete loss of opportunity for promotion. Discrimination of women in the Wal-Mart enterprise is so common and so blatantly executed that a class action suit has been brought against Wal-Mart by an unfairly treated employee named Betty Duke. In fact, numerous lawsuits have been brought against Wal-Mart charging sexual discrimination and violations of Equal Opportunity Employment Law.
According to the Berkeley Women’s Law Journal in (2004), Wal-Mart paid its employees about one-third less than what similarly unionized employees earn. On average, a Wal-Mart employee earns $8.00 per hour, with an average take home paycheck of about $256.00, which equates to a yearly salary of $13,312.00 (Brownstein, 2005). The poverty level in America is $14,630.00. An hourly pay violation by The Federal Fair Labor Standards Act accuses Wal-Mart of working its employees on an overtime basis, then bringing in management to adjust the time sheets.
Unaffordable Benefits Packages.
Critics of Wal-Mart say that the health care plans offered to employees is “skimpy” (Jay, 2011) and employees may have to pay deductibles of $2,000 or more annually in order to obtain health care services. Given that a salaried employee at Wal-Mart may earn just $23,000 to $25,000 per year, this deductible is prohibitively high (Jay, 2011). Brownstein (2005) wrote that Wal-Mart’s quest to reduce the cost of labor was the catalyst to requiring employees to pay 20% of their weekly salary for health. Over the last 12 years, Wal-Mart has been raising the costs of premiums for the its Wal-Mart employees by 200% (Brownstein, 2005)
The company that was founded on Sam Walton’s old fashion values of putting people first (Kennon, 2011) seems to be at a crossroads. Do they continue down the road that has put them in this position, or does management take a good hard look at where the company is headed?
Can It Be Done Right?
When corporations are pushed to the wall by an outraged public, they claim that they are only trying to be a profitable company and all decisions are made with that goal in mind. The purpose of a corporation, which, thanks to Milton Friedman, business school students everywhere will testify, is to make a profit. Loyalty goes to the stockholder. Are these corporations right? Must the welfare of employees be subjugated to the stock price and the P&L?
Aldi, a German-owned discount food store, is a Wal-Mart competitor. Like many things made or developed in Germany, Aldi is well-designed and well-executed. Germany provides a model for a sustainable economy where unions are strong, where outsourcing is not knee-jerk, where a highly trained workforce predominates, and where workers have “some say in managing companies through the supervisory board at many companies,” ( Gary, 2011) such that financial considerations are mediated by those for workers. But the Aldi workers are not unionized. The assumption here would be that they must experience the same sort of difficulties that Wal-Mart employees experience. The reader is left to make his or her own decision, but do consider this one workplace attribute. At Aldi, grocery checkers sit down while they work. Low stools are provided for employees that enable them to check groceries for the duration of their shift without being on their feet. At Wal-Mart, grocery checkers stand for their entire shift. On a reconnaissance trip to Wal-Mart, a woman who looked to be in her seventies was working as a checker. She found the idea of sitting on a stool appealing but was not convinced she could do her job sitting down. She needs to shop at Aldi’s and see how it is done. This septuagenarian could save money by shopping at Aldi’s too, since the discount there is 20% to 45% greater than Wal-Mart’s (Clifford, 2011). Another important difference between these two discount stores is that Wal-Mart is publically traded, but Aldi’s is privately owned — by the same brothers who converted the company from their mother’s retail business in the 1940s. Wal-Mart is currently paying stockholders $1.46 at a yield of 2.80% (Yahoo Finance, 2011). Despite flattened growth following the recovery, other financials for Wal-Mart are similarly rosy (Markets, 2011, Yahoo Finance, 2011).
General business problem
If you talk to the right people, you’ll hear that Wal-Mart was not always a “bad” company. Sam Walton had ideas about how to create a profitable company and about how to keep employees happy and motivated to work (Kennon, 2011). The general business problem that Betty Dukes encountered is the same general business problem that corporations across the globe face every day. If the sole purpose of a corporation is to increase its profits, if — as Milton Friedman wrote in the New York Times in 1970 — even the social responsibility of business is to increase its profits (Friedman, 1970), then neither the workers nor the society in which the corporation is sited can rationally expect the welfare of people to take precedence over the generation of profit.
If society accepts the concept of the modern corporation as the only viable model, then legal battles to uphold the rights of workers, and legislative initiatives to curb the gluttenous appetites of for-profit corporations will continue to drain the energy of the American people, making us less competitive and less resilient in the long run, and making us more litigious and more contentious in the short run. But, as illustrated in the Aldi example above, other corporate models exist, and other ways of business can be successful.
According to Byrne (2009, p. 45),
“More recently, courts have been unwilling to unambiguously endorse the sole primacy of shareholder wealth maximization, as was apparent in the Dodge, Wrigley, A.P. Smith, Unocal, and Revlon cases. In addition to their acceptance of socially responsible acts, courts seem to acknowledge that the corporation has a public responsibility.”
The fundamental reason for workplace discrimination and resistance to the establishment of unions in corporations is a desire to increase the bottom line. When workers rights can be taken out of the corporate profit equation, corporations are able to focus on increasing shareholder value. “Shareholder primacy and wealth maximization” (Byrne, 2009, p. 43) have inordinately skewed the allegiance of corporations to stockholder interests — to profits, which result in personal high rates of remuneration for corporate executives — almost exclusively. As David Langevoort emphasized in his article in the George Washington University Law Review, The Organizational Psychology of Hyper-Competition: Corporate Irresponsibility and the Lessons of Enron, “the obsession with using short-term earnings numbersâ€¦[has] produced severe social dislocation” (p.968).
The directors and officers in a corporation have a duty of care and a duty of loyalty (Mannino, 1989). These are fiscal duties that have as their goal the viability of the corporate fiscal and legal situations. The long-standing problems generated by Wal-Mart’s manner of doing business, and that of the Wall Street investment banks and insurance agencies that caused the fiscal crisis of 2008, indicate that a third duty needs to be added. This duty is to “consider the public impact of corporate decisions” (Byrne, 2009).
Section 2: The Project
No law currently exists that requires corporations to consider the public impact of corporate decisions (Freeman, et al., 2004) It is doubtful that substantive human rights issues can be effectively addressed in the courts without a change in the law that prevents corporations from acting in a manner that wholly dismisses their duty to consider the impact of their decisions and actions on the public (Elliott & Freeman, 2000). Perhaps the strongest and clearest example of a legislative approach to intractable problems such as discrimination is that of civil rights legislation. One of the fundamental issues with this approach to law regulating the rights of workers is that it is not a priori. The burden of proving workplace discrimination falls on the individual workers and entails challenging the very strength of the very corporations that created the discriminatory environments and policies (Hinkley, 2002). And further, the fundamental issue of workplace discrimination may, as in the case of Betty Dukes, get lost as the courts debate ancillary issues such as what attributes qualify a case to be brought as a class action suit, and what academic frameworks can be used to analyze the implicit policies and discrete actions of corporations with regard to workers rights. History has shown that citizens must be aided by good government in their quest for a life free from discrimination — of any type — thorough the enactment of laws that are enforceable and have defined coverage sufficient to ensure that behavior change occurs, and that undue burden is not placed on citizens. A revision of corporate law governing duties of directors and officers has been proposed (Byrne, 2009) and is the subject of this proposed research project.
In the area of law that covers fiscal operations of corporations, directors and officers have a duty of care and a duty of loyalty. A revised conception of corporate public duty would follow the guiding principle, as outlined by Byrne (2009):
“When a corporate pursuit requires a socially irresponsible act — be it a human rights violation, economic endangerment, or otherwise — corporations must simply avoid that pursuitâ€¦The corporate public duty must also dispel the notion that the corporations’ mere existence sufficiently serves the public interest by — providing employment, goods and services, innovation, and so onâ€¦.In practice, corporate decisionmakers must consider the downside risk to the public before executing a decision. Nothing in this conception inhibits commercial activity; rather, it simply inhibits irresponsible behavior” (p. 46).
This research is designed to test receptivity of legislators regarding the addition of a third duty for directors and officers of corporations, and their attitudes and impressions regarding changes to corporate governance law. The research questions follow:
1. Is there political will sufficient to add a third duty to those currently required of directors and officers of corporations?
2. How do legislators regard the concept of a duty of corporate officers and director to consider the impact of corporate decisions on the public?
3. What benefits do legislators perceive regarding legislation that would increase corporate accountability to the public?
4. What drawbacks do legislators perceive regarding legislation that would increase corporate accountability to the public?
5. Do legislators believe that a properly and completely defined and codified law stipulating the duty of corporations to consider the public impact of corporate decisions and actions will provide sufficient grounds to practically (rather than theoretically) enforce such legislation?
Research Method and Design.
Method. A combination (hybrid) of qualitative and quantitative methods will be used to explore the receptivity and conceptualization of corporate governance law that would include a duty for corporations to consider the impact of their decision-making and actions on the public. The literature offers many examples of a combined qualitative and quantitative research design for exploration of social, political, labor relations, and legal research topics. A mixed methods approach was selected because qualitative data is not always perceived to be sufficiently robust to gain the attention and endorsement of the public, and legislative bodies are accustomed to basing decisions primarily on quantitative data which can be translated into budgetary proposals. Yet qualitative data can provide a richer “text” and “context” for analysis and lead to insights that are not apparent in more expansive or “depersonalized” quantitative data sets.
Research design. The research design is exploratory and uses the established research methodology conventions of survey research, interviews, and archival document review. This research design is commonly employed in policy studies and research that investigates topics that explore the perceptions, attitudes, and intended actions of individuals in areas such as sociology, law, politics, and public policy.
The research questions are intended to explore the phenomenon of law-making as it applies to corporations. Explicitly, the research questions are designed to explore the thinking of legislators regarding corporate governance laws, the attitudes and impressions of legislators regarding the need for changes in corporate governance laws, and to approach the question of political will regarding enactment of such legislation.
The fundamental issues presented earlier in this paper provide a platform for investigating why corporations are permitted to act in ways that are aggressively harmful to the public good. The principle that forms the basis for this issue is that of natural entity theory. Byrne points out that “natural entity theorists ‘sought an anti-regulatory conception of corporate law that protected the financial interests of shareholders from any special restrictions on their property rights'” (2009, p. 33). Under natural entity theory, a corporation is free, as is the citizen, to pursue its own business interests, contracting with whomever it wishes, and to acquire property, thereby ensuring growth, as an individual entity (Horowitz, 1992, pp. 94). The critical issue here is that, under natural entity theory, the corporation is free to determine its own purpose unhampered by public interest or state views that would serve to shape the corporate purpose.
The research will employ interviews, surveys, and archival review of documents to investigate the context, dynamics, and evaluation of a legislative bill that would require corporations to adhere to a duty of consideration of the public impact of corporate decisions and actions. The literature review provides extensive examples in which surveys, interviews, and archival review of documents have been used to explore social, political, labor relations, and legal research.
Role of the Researcher. The researcher will act as the interviewer or will select an interviewer able to discuss legal and political aspects of this research, such a pre-law student or a paralegal. The researcher will gain access to legislators by contacting their public relations staff in their local and Washington D.C. offices. The researcher will direct the distribution of the surveys and arrange for, or provide, analysis of the survey results. Further, the researcher will enquire of legislative staff about relevant documents for the archival review.
Participant Population and Sampling. Research participants shall consist of current and past legislators from all regions of the county. Participant responses shall be treated confidentially. The identities of the research participants shall be reduced to identification numbers so that survey responses and interview results are not associated with individual legislators. Where access is difficult, trusted partisan political staff shall be contacted to help condition contact with legislators who express concerns about the study or the procedures for ensuring privacy. Human subjects procedures shall be strictly followed and a human subjects application for research shall be filed with the college prior to initiating the research study. Participants shall be encouraged to review in writing the human subjects approval by the college and the procedures for ensuring that the study is conducted in an ethical and considerate manner.
The sample will be purposefully constructed to ensure regional and political representation. Sampling procedures will take age, gender, political party, geographic region, term status, and prior or current employment into consideration. Representatives of both the House and Congress will be approached. The sample will, however, focus on legislators from the House due to the likelihood of willingness to participate and approachability.
Data analysis. Survey data will both qualitative and quantitative. Close ended survey questions will be analyzed using multivariate regression using SPSS and open ended questions will be analyzed using standard manual ethnographic approaches to codifying data for themes (Miles & Huberman, 2000. Coding of data will emerge from the pilot tested versions of the interviews and the open ended questions in the survey. Archival data will be analyzed using qualitative methodology. All survey questions and interview questions will be piloted with legislative office staff and retired legislators.
A process for checking the reliability of the coding of all qualitative data will be independently employed by enlisting other college students trained in research methods to review randomly selected excerpts of the qualitative data. In order to check for reliability and validity of the data, both qualitative and quantitative data will be triangulated. In addition, interview respondents will be given opportunity to verify that summarization and conclusions based on their interview responses are accurate.
Research logs and cataloging of interview responses and responses to open ended survey questions will be used to organize the data. Raw data will be stored on memory sticks for a period of two years and then all digital forms of the data will be destroyed.
This research study is exploratory in nature, therefore, no hypothesis will be generated. The purpose of the research is to add to the body of literature from which this research flows.
Variables. Variables important to the context of the study are fundamentally based on the attributes of the subjects, as the unit of study, and as the primary data source. In addition to responses on the surveys and in the interviews, a number of other variables will be important to examine during data analysis. Political party, term status, bill proposals, committee membership, and voting record will all become data points for analysis. An underlying assumption regarding representative sampling is that the political orientation, years in office, bill and committee activity will inevitably reflect the philosophy of the legislators selected for the sample. And it is the political philosophy of the legislators, as well as attitudes about the feasibility, practicality, and viability of such law-making that is the focus of the research.
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There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
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We provide professional writing services to help you score straight A’s by submitting custom written assignments that mirror your guidelines.
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Someone from our customer support team is always here to respond to your questions. So, hit us up if you have got any ambiguity or concern.
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You don’t have to wait for an update for hours; you can track the progress of your order any time you want. We share the status after each step.
Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.
Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.
From brainstorming your paper's outline to perfecting its grammar, we perform every step carefully to make your paper worthy of A grade.
Hire your preferred writer anytime. Simply specify if you want your preferred expert to write your paper and we’ll make that happen.
Get an elaborate and authentic grammar check report with your work to have the grammar goodness sealed in your document.
You can purchase this feature if you want our writers to sum up your paper in the form of a concise and well-articulated summary.
You don’t have to worry about plagiarism anymore. Get a plagiarism report to certify the uniqueness of your work.
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We create perfect papers according to the guidelines.
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We thoroughly read your final draft to identify errors.
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Dedication. Quality. Commitment. Punctuality
Here is what we have achieved so far. These numbers are evidence that we go the extra mile to make your college journey successful.
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We understand your guidelines first before delivering any writing service. You can discuss your writing needs and we will have them evaluated by our dedicated team.
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We promise you excellent grades and academic excellence that you always longed for. Our writers stay in touch with you via email.