Russia is the world’s number one producer of natural gas and is sometimes referred to as the world’s energy superpower. Considering oil production, Russia shares the first position with Saudi Arabia, and accounted for 22% of world’s output of natural gas, while possessing 27% of proven reserves. Between 1998 and 2004, Russia accounted for 48% of the increase in global oil supply. 20% of European oil consumption was supplied from Russia, and at the same time, she controls Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan oil and gas exports, since their pipelines cross Russian territory (Krushelnycky, 2004).
Oil and gas are key to Russia’s comeback to prominence in the global scene, and it is believed that this energy wealth will enable her regain her super power status it enjoyed during the cold war era. The influx of petrodollars in the domestic front has consolidated a new authoritarian regime under Vladimir Putin. This vast reserves are unlikely to change the situation of European anxiety in the foreseeable future, coupled with unexplored fields may double the proportion of world’s proven reserves. Russia is continuing to build new oil pipelines to increase deliveries to Europe. Therefore, Russia’s overdependence on oil discourages foreign investment by scaring away investors.
European countries have the dilemma of over depending on Russia for oil and gas supplies. Should European leaders embrace their dependence and strengthen their economic and political ties with Russia, or should they check out for alternative supplies? Most European leaders are very concerned about Russian oil supply disruptions, and price disputes. For example, price disputes with Ukraine and Belarus had temporary shutdowns of oil and gas supplies between 2006 and 2007, such as disruptions did not affect actual deliveries, but made the European consumers to be aware of their vulnerability of depending on a single supplier. European consumers are aware of Russia’s vast reserves, and some of them fear that Russia political instability makes her an unreliable partner, others think that she is too strong and will use the petrodollars to win political concessions from neighbouring countries and rebuild its military.
Europeans are also wary of Russia’s other investments in energy and metal conglomerates, as they have been aggressively acquiring production facilities and distribution networks all over Europe. Vladimir, (2006), states that, ‘the presence of Russia’s energy diplomacy is also being felt in other countries in Asia, especially China who is the world’s second largest consumer of oil. Clean environmental issues are making Russia’s natural gas an attractive substitute to domestic coal, and they will need to invest more in terms of building long pipelines to reach out for the Asian market, which will be an expensive venture. Doing this will make them avoid over depending on one customer, China, and go all the way to Japan and South Korea. This might solve the current problems with pipelines across Belarus and Ukraine.
Historically, Europeans have depended on Russian oil. However, Vladimir M., (2006), argues that, with growing concerns of climate change and worries of oil production peaking is increasing this anxiety. The change is political rather than economic, as European states embraced the idea that Russia is developing a market democracy, the political linkages that dogged Russia’s gas projects came down.
In the early days, Russia raised a multibillion bastion in the efforts to liberate the economy that was shackled by the remains of Soviet era state control, corruption, and dependence on oil and natural resources exports. The Russian government has tried to modernize the economy, by attracting some of the world’s best scientists and most innovative high technology firms to put it at par with 21st century excellence. This is making Russia learn from other European states on how to support high technology centres with government funds to attract private investment. Though, the reminders of Russia’s dilapidated science cities known as naukograds gives Kremlin a poor record in building a modern economy revolving around technological innovations. President Dmitry Medvedev has invested immense political capital in the project in a bold move to improve visionary enterprise, particularly, the Skolkovo City, which is a resemblance of Silicon Valley. Russian lawmakers approved this [project two years ago, merging billions of state money with foreign capital, ideas, and business culture. The project focuses on energy, information technology, bio medicine, space, and nuclear technology. The project’s aim is to make half the people living in Skolkovo City to be foreigners, and they are to consist of scientists and engineers researching in science labs to create products for the global market. For example, vehicles using fossil fuels will be banned on Russian roads paving the way for electric vehicles within city limits. Homes and offices will be connected with high speed internet, which will make Russia drop its reputation as a country dipped in brain drain, cyber crooks, and economic decay (Jonathan, 2005).
Growth in Russia has been chequered since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, with regions that are agriculture dependent and outdated factories lagging behind those with oil and other resources. Much of Russia’s current growth comes from fossil fuels exports, and accounts for two thirds of the nation’s export with revenue from energy sales making about half of the federal government’s budget. Exports are predicted rise if they join the World Trade Organisation. Insufficient state owned enterprises still contribute roughly half of Russia’s GDP with oil and natural gas giving 25%. Risk of massive layoff and stiffer competition could force state run factories to close down as protective tariffs are phased out. Minimal opportunities in other sectors of the economy together with the realization among the young, that Russia’s politics and society are stifling, is encouraging a persistent brain drain which has grown from 7% four years ago to 22%. Widespread alcoholism, brain drain, and crippling health care system sap a lot of energy from the country’s economy. Endemic corruption is dragging the economy down, making it difficult for doing business, and thus scaring discouraging potential foreign investors.
Vladimir Putin is running for another term and Medvedev as the prime minister could change Russia’s business climate. This might translate to continuity in the current government policies and actors, thus a boost to investor confidence that should partially rescue her falling currency and weakening stock market. The falling oil prices and the persisting crisis in the Euro zone may minimize the positive effects, but at the very least high capital inflows and increased foreign development investment are expected. In the short run, this will be good news for MNCs doing business in Russia in the context of an unpredictable world economy.
There is general agreement that the Russian economy needs fundamental reforms away from its dependence on oil prices and high government spending. Maintenance of high oil prices will do well for Russia, but a fall would be a crisis of a chain reaction that would undermine the economy, thus depressing the GDP (Vladimir, 2006).
Russia is on an inexorable rise as an energy superpower, the vast reserves raise many economic questions for overall geological challenges. Most of the fields lie far apart, and some are offshore that substantially increases extraction costs and total overlays, making concluding contracts with foreign investors less lucrative, so high oil prices must be maintained in the long term to make these projects economically viable. A global recession or curtailment of oil demands in the USA, may give negative results both energy finances (Vladimir, 2006).
Problems associated with corporate governance of Russian energy since 2000, that is, the renationalisation of the oil sector makes development be in the hands of state owned oil and gas companies. These corporations are controlled by Kremlin, and they reward insider cronies to maintain populist price subsidies, that may compromise on efficiency and rational investment planning such as export revenue used to subsidize domestic customers leading to little incentives or opportunities for the corporate to invest in developing new fields, making gas output flat. Russia’s enormity of resource wealth may not match the capacity of the state’s bureaucracy for waste, corruption, and mismanagement.
According to Michael, (2001), ‘an energy led development strategy is associated with enormous political risk. Nations with heavy reliance on energy exports accounting for more than a third of export earnings experience lower economic growth, and least likely to undergo a democratic transition. Non democratic regimes are prone to political crises, and factional struggles to share resources disrupt development projects that scare foreign investors. The sub soil resources law will bar foreign investors from owning more than half of strategic fields. On the other hand, Russia may be able to beat the resource curse, since it has a diversified economy.
Under Putin, the Russian nation has regained its capacity to levy taxes on oil and gas, and had discipline with conservative fiscal and monetary policy has seen foreign debts paid from US $ 150 billion to US $ 50 billion, foreign currency reserves reached US $ 350 billion by 2007, and stabilization fund created in 2004 that is not accessible to current spending. Inflation has been low , and appreciation of the currency rose to 80% by 1999. The other non tradable sectors of the economy such as construction and services have been growing, estimates show that oil and gas accounted for half of growth, and non energy sectors for the other half since 1999. This optimistic interpretation of sustaining the economic boom could be correct (Vladimir, 2006)
No nation or company can exert decisive influence over the oil market; thus it is hard to use oil as a weapon since the global energy market is complex, fragmented, and competitive. Resource dependency implies slower long term economic growth, and greater political instability. Though, it is not a contradiction for Russia to be falling from a resource curse and dangerous energy superpower. Russia was a super power before 1991 and still maintains advanced technological capacity, USSR’s military capacity, substantial international arms trade, and a stockpile of nuclear weapons and delivery systems. Using oil as a tool of influence hurts international relations, that causes anxiety and driving nations to look for alliances and other steps to protect themselves from Russia’s pressure
The idea of Russia’s energy superpower consists more polemical than analytical content and exaggerates her ability to use oil and gas to influence her neighbours on the global arena is a contradiction. Energy can be used as a hard power if it is combined with other tools such as military capacity and diplomatic bargaining. Expectations and perceptions drive oil prices and not the demand and supply curve. Volatility reflects fears which are not physically real, but the fear relates to what might happen to supplies from Russia; would be a surge in demand in, China and India, followed by a deep depression leading to a sharp fall in oil consumption. Oil imports are good for the economy and boosts world peace and security. Therefore, real oil dependence requires energy isolationism, which is, creating barriers for free trade with other countries, which slows economic growth (Vladimir, 2006).
Dependency of foreign oil producers like Russia depends on her customers creates the fear of falling global demand slackening, thus falling oil prices and leads to less foreign exchange. Oil wealth has some political disadvantages of increased corruption, with more money Russia received from oil and gas exports, the less accountable the government becomes to the citizens. Russia faces the challenges of managing the consequences of oil and gas dependencies traded at the global markets, and begin an economy that relies less on energy exports. Russian liberalization and diversification is crucial to its continued prosperity.
Vladimir M., (2006). ‘Would Russia Cut Off Gas Supplies to Europe?’, Argumenty i Fakty, 17 May
Krushelnycky A, (2004). Rift Threatens Belarus Ties with Russia’, the Independent,
Jonathan S, (2005).The Future of Russian Gas and Gazprom. Oxford University Press,
Michael L, (2001), ‘Does Oil Hinder Democracy: The Political Economy of the Resource Curse’, World Politics, Vol. 51, No. 1 (1999), pp. 297–322
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!
We provide professional writing services to help you score straight A’s by submitting custom written assignments that mirror your guidelines.
Get result-oriented writing and never worry about grades anymore. We follow the highest quality standards to make sure that you get perfect assignments.
Our writers have experience in dealing with papers of every educational level. You can surely rely on the expertise of our qualified professionals.
Your deadline is our threshold for success and we take it very seriously. We make sure you receive your papers before your predefined time.
Someone from our customer support team is always here to respond to your questions. So, hit us up if you have got any ambiguity or concern.
Sit back and relax while we help you out with writing your papers. We have an ultimate policy for keeping your personal and order-related details a secret.
We assure you that your document will be thoroughly checked for plagiarism and grammatical errors as we use highly authentic and licit sources.
Still reluctant about placing an order? Our 100% Moneyback Guarantee backs you up on rare occasions where you aren’t satisfied with the writing.
You don’t have to wait for an update for hours; you can track the progress of your order any time you want. We share the status after each step.
Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.
Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.
From brainstorming your paper's outline to perfecting its grammar, we perform every step carefully to make your paper worthy of A grade.
Hire your preferred writer anytime. Simply specify if you want your preferred expert to write your paper and we’ll make that happen.
Get an elaborate and authentic grammar check report with your work to have the grammar goodness sealed in your document.
You can purchase this feature if you want our writers to sum up your paper in the form of a concise and well-articulated summary.
You don’t have to worry about plagiarism anymore. Get a plagiarism report to certify the uniqueness of your work.
Join us for the best experience while seeking writing assistance in your college life. A good grade is all you need to boost up your academic excellence and we are all about it.
We create perfect papers according to the guidelines.
We seamlessly edit out errors from your papers.
We thoroughly read your final draft to identify errors.
Work with ultimate peace of mind because we ensure that your academic work is our responsibility and your grades are a top concern for us!
Dedication. Quality. Commitment. Punctuality
Here is what we have achieved so far. These numbers are evidence that we go the extra mile to make your college journey successful.
We have the most intuitive and minimalistic process so that you can easily place an order. Just follow a few steps to unlock success.
We understand your guidelines first before delivering any writing service. You can discuss your writing needs and we will have them evaluated by our dedicated team.
We write your papers in a standardized way. We complete your work in such a way that it turns out to be a perfect description of your guidelines.
We promise you excellent grades and academic excellence that you always longed for. Our writers stay in touch with you via email.