Table of Contents
History of Speed in Marine Vessels. 6
Definition of Safe Speed for Vessels. 10
Factors that Influence Safe Speed for Vessels. 11
Demographic Factors influencing Safe Speed of Vessels. 14
High Traffic in Narrow Locations. 19
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects. 25
The purpose of the study is to investigate how demographic factors influence safe speed for vessels. Notably, the paper examines how age, experience, and ethnicity correlate with designing of ships and environmental factors to impact the speeding of vessels. The study is essential for it would help reduce seaway collisions. Reducing such accidents has economic and ecological values for shipping companies. For instance, it would minimize damage to marine life and losses resulting from accidents. As such, the sustainability of marine life and company revenue would be guaranteed. Open and closed questionnaires were used to obtain data from randomly selected respondents. Each participant of the study group had equal chances of responding to study questions. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) coupled up with t-test and chi-square test inferential tests provided the basis for examining the correlation between individual factors and safe speed for vessels. Preliminary results do not indicate a significant relationship between demographic factors and safe rate for water locomotives. The study is critical because it guarantees equal marine job opportunities for everyone regardless of their gender, age, and ethnicity.
Few studies if any exists on operations of seas. Public members are unaware of what goes on in seas. Perhaps that is because seas are far away from people. There is no meaningful research on water vessels, leave alone what determines the safe speed for such objects. Previous studies on locomotives have examined how engine power, type of energy, aerodynamics, size of machines, and purpose of the vessels influence their moving speed. Few if any have bothered to examine how demographic factors such as age, ethnicity, and gender affect the safe rate for boats. Examination of previous studies on car accidents reveals that the number of crashes caused between men and women as well as people of various races is not uniform (Detels, Gulliford, Karim, & Tan 2017). Does that beg the question does gender, age, and ethnicity influence safe driving? Building on such answered questions, this study seeks to determine if experience and age affect safe speed. In so doing, the paper would also examine how a specific situation and type of vessel influence safe speed.
There exists a considerable research gap involving safe speed for vessels. Whereas there are set speed limit depending on place and conditions to minimize collision and water accidents, there is no study that has examined if such speed limits are valid or not. Consequently, there is a need for further research to determine if the set standards are correct or not. The purpose of this study is to fill the enormous research gap that exists regarding speed in marine operations. No study has reviewed how individual factors influence the speed limit. Similarly, the lack of study that examines the link between demographic factors and type of vessels used, and speed limits at various points is needed. Previous studies on road safety show a correlation between individual factors and safe driving speed of cars. It is not clear if the same is true of marine workers. Accordingly, this study seeks to fill that research gap by examining how individual factors influence safe speed for vessels.
The following questions are used to guide the research, help obtain valid data, and cover the scope of the study:
There is a need for a study that examines how demographic factors influence safe speed for vessels. Such research is critical for it would reduce water accidents significantly. In a survey carried out in Nigeria, old and young fishers often collide blaming each other on poor driving skills and over speeding (Onwuegbuchunam 2013). Given their age difference, one would wonder if age and experience influence speed at which vessels are driven. Another issue is that modern-day young Helmsmen use high-tech vessels that move very fast as opposed to the older generation that prefer ancient engines. Such factors are likely to influence safe speed for vessels significantly. As such, the objective of this study is to determine if:
Ancient mariners used Dutchman’s log to determine the speed of their vessels. According to this method, mariners would throw a wood over the vessel’s bow and calculate the time taken before the ship passed the wood. Knots then took over from Dutchman’s log in calculating the speed of ships. Ever since vessels have been automated and calculating their speed is no longer an issue. Some scholars assert that it is hard to predict precisely the time “high speed” vessels were introduced in the marine world. Christopher Dawson book seeks to provide the history of high-speed locomotives in the marine world. Dawson (1972) asserts that speed has evolved from sail ships to engine propulsion, and now from “dynamic lift” ships to automated ones. The author further asserts that the need for speed, increased carrying capacity, seaworthiness, reliability, and endurance have influenced all those ships designs.
Dawson (1972) further holds that the purpose of the ship influenced speed. Since fighting boats and cargo vessels needed speed, they were designed in such a way that they move quickly to outpace their enemies are delivered their perishable goods on time respectively. Regarding warships, adequate space for a small number of marine fighters and ability to maneuverer effectively in all directions at any time influenced constructions of long and narrow rowed ships. In a rowed ship, speed was determined by the number of crew members on board. In sailing ships, the sum of canvas spread in the sails determined their speed. To overcome opposing force from wind, the number of masts were increased to ensure the vessel moved as fast as possible. 19th C saw a revolution in speed and designing of ships. Shipbuilders from America studied principles of sail propulsion, such that they build longer and larger ships. Such ships could carry more crew members and move at a much faster speed than their predecessors. Importantly, such vessels could move in all types of weather at high speed.
The current increase in oil prices, emissions from ships, strict regulations, and unfavourable market conditions make it necessary to study the speed of vessels. Additionally, the increasing water accidents resulting from collisions require extensive research that examines safe speed for vessels (National Research Council 1991). It is evident that not all ships could have the same safe speed. For instance, warships and cargo locomotives would always require high speed than luxury vessels. Nonetheless, given that these vessels navigate in the same waters, there is a need to standardize their speeds depending on areas of operations to minimize accidents. A study that examines how sheep speed is measured, how ship design affects speed, factors that influence vessel speed, and why the speed of ships must be regulated is necessary to bring sanity in the industry. Moreover, the speed of the vessel is related to emissions. A slow moving boat would emit less poisonous gas while a fast moving one is likely to pollute the environment. Similarly, the high-speed vessel is prone to accidents. As such standardizing the speed is a must to protect lives and the environment.
Whereas technological and environmental factors that influence speeds can be determined and standardized, the same is not true of demographic factors. Even if speeds for vessels are set, human conditions such as experience, age, gender, ethnicity, and adrenaline could determine if a captain alter such speed. In road driving, young people are known to drive at high speed compared to older ones (Machin & Sankey 2008). Moreover, women tend to be more careful when driving than men. Unfortunately, there is no study of marine operations to determine if such factors could also influence the piloting of vessels. This study would go a long way to determining how environmental factors and ship design collaborate with individual elements to control safe speed for boats.
The study would help regulate marine activities thus save lives of marine workers and water species. Excessive speed contribute to collisions of vessels at sea. Despite Rule 6 of 1972 that commands vessels to always navigate at a safe speed and utilize conditions of visibility, accidents still happen (Healy & Sweeney 1998). Moreover, each region in which marine activities take place has its own proscribed speed limits. Unfortunately, these regulations have not helped reduce sea accidents. Such speed does not only increase chances of accidents but also encourage the emission of harmful gases. Demographic factors that influence sea speed of vessels remain unexplored in this respect. Perhaps some of those factors equally encourage over speeding and eventual accidents. That calls for a study to investigate how personal attributes, gender, age, and race influence speeding in marine navigation. The study is significant because it would help determine individual factors influencing safe speed for vessels. Such discovery would go a long way in making water way safer for every user. Economically, reduced accidents increase the profitability of shipping companies.
The experiential theory suggests that the crew learns from experience (Akella, 2010). According to Kolb, when the team have been in the sea for longer, they know when to use different speeds and where. For example, when the vessel is on course known to be dangerous and prone to accidents, the crew will use safe rates to navigate the waters. However, a new team may use unsafe speeds due to the lack of knowledge about the course. Also, experience allows the team to learn about the ship and how it reacts to different weathers and turbulence in the sea. With the background, the team can expertly exploit the speeds to reach their destination ahead of time as well as avoid accidents. Therefore, factors like age determine the culture used on the water regarding the use of safe speeds while age is also a determinant since older crews have more experience than new teams do. The race has little significance in the use of safe speeds since the experience of the crew will determine the use of the ship in different courses.
The experiential theory gains support from John Dewey’s pragmatic approach to education. According to Dewey, the best way to learn is through a hands-on approach (Intezari, & Pauleen, 2017). Dewey implies that for students and anyone in society to learn how to do anything that is of considerable significance to himself or herself, he or she has to be directly involved in the functionalities of that activity. In the case of crews, they have to learn about the ship and the courses that the ship has been through to become qualified for navigation. Through the experience they gain over the years in water, the crew gets in a better position to determine when to use safe speeds and when speeds out of the recommended ones are applicable in the course they take. Therefore, age determines the use of safe speeds by the crew of a vessel. Crews that have been with a ship for long will know when to use high and low speeds. Also, a crew that has navigated a specific course for long will know when to use different speeds since they know when and where an accident is likely to happen. Factors like weather patterns also give them a greater insight into the navigation of the ship as well as the use of safe speeds while on its course.
COLREG details some of the safety precautions and or rules that ships need to take into account. Rule No 6 of the COLREG expounds on the need for safe speed for vessels. Definitively, a safe rate for boats is whereby “every vessel at all times navigates and proceeds at safer speed so that they can take proper and effective action to avoid collision and be stopped within a distance appropriate to the prevailing circumstances and conditions” (Rutkowski, 2016). Herein, the ship or any other water vessel evade a collision or accident by stopping in the displacement fitting to the modern environments and conditions. In naval mine warfare, safe speed is defined as “the speed at which a ship can navigate and or proceed without triggering a given influence mine, at the depth under consideration, within the affected sea region” (Llana & Wisneskey, 1991). Most definitions of safe speeds are constructed around the explanation given by the ColRegs.
In explanation, the safe speed for vessels rule means that ships, boats, and other water transport systems need to be handled at speeds that give them time and distance allowance allowing them to execute proper and necessary actions to avert a collision or accident. The safe speed for the vessel is critical since it guides sailors on the speed a ship can sail at safely. When a boat is moving faster, there are higher chances of collision contrary to when it is cruising at lower speeds. This principle seems to apply in all systems of transport from roads to air and rail. The rule further holds that every water vessel should sail at a safer speed to take suitable and proper action that limits crash.
Giving to this rule of safe speed for vessels, Rutkowski (2016) alludes that what is a safe speed relies on the boat and the prevailing situations and conditions. The rule covers all water vessels in all states where the COLREG is applicable. This implicates that the regulation applies to the high water or ocean regions and every water bodies that are linked and are manoeuvrable by ships. The provision for safe speed for vessels wants mariners to make their judgment on the appropriate rates for their boats while taking into account the conditions and circumstances in which they are sailing in.
Several factors determine the need for a safe speed for a vessel. Some of these aspects that influence safe speed for ships include (1) the visibility conditions, (2) the movements of wind, water storms and ocean currents, (3) traffic density, type of water locomotives in the region, and the proximity, (4) vessel receptiveness, and (5) the proximity of any navigational hazards. Not much has been discussed in the context of these influences, and little research exists about them. The currently limited research, however, has tried to expound on these factors exploring their decisive impact on safe speeds for ships, boats, and all kinds of water vessels.
In regards to the visibility aspect, “COLREG” (2019) stresses that visibility is significant during cruising. According to “COLREG” (2019), if the state of visibility is undermined, then adequate precautions should be taken into consideration. Herein, the mariner needs to be very attentive and stand by, and if necessary, the stand by steering motor should be switched on to make it easy to stop the ship at a proper time and distance in conditions and circumstances that appear risky and dangerous. Rutkowski (2016) agrees that visibility is a crucial factor any navigation officer should take into account. Bestowing to Rutkowski (2016), if visibility is poor, then it is risky for a sailor to move at faster speeds. In case the vessel moves faster in poor visibility conditions, there are limited time and distance to avoid a collision, and that is disastrous. Both “COLREG” (2019) and Rutkowski (2016) agree that a mariner should move at speeds where they can comfortably stop a boat in time and half the distance they can see clearly. Therefore, it is crucial to sail slowly in fog, rain, mist, and smoke or glare.
Aside from the above, “COLREG” (2019) identifies that the condition and or magnitude of wind, sea and current, and the closeness of navigational threats have an impact on the speed of vessels. “COLREG” (2019) claim that when weather conditions are rough with high winds and waves, it becomes a problem for sailors to cruise and worst, it becomes difficult to change the course of the vessel. This is because the wind and the waves thwart any possibilities of turning the ship. In the circumstance that the boat was moving faster, the chances of it crashing are relatively higher. Since this is the case, it becomes essential to cruise at a safe speed as this makes the ship navigate carefully and easily in harsh weather conditions. In circumstances of hostile winds and waves, a fast-moving ship will change course or even crash at the slightest instance of unstable states. Llana and Wisneskey (1991) support the fact that manageable speeds are necessary on the sea to help mariners navigate comfortably within hostile weather conditions such as high winds and currents/waves. Llana and Wisneske (1991) agree with ColRegs that manageable speeds in hostile sea conditions can help the navigation officer bring the ship back to the course and out of danger before landing in difficult and dangerous situations.
The traffic density resulting from the increase in vessels at sea or ocean also dictates the safe speed at which ships should cruise (“COLREG”, 2019). When traffic density at sea is heavy, the navigation officer should be alert. The attentiveness is for the fact that the boat may at some point need to take emergency stops to avoid colliding with other vessels (“COLREG”, 2019; Rutkowski, 2016). Altering the course of the ship in such situations is very difficult especially when the ship is moving at higher speeds. As such, there are potentials of collisions and accidents. Liu, Liu, Li, Li, Tan, Liu, & Liu (2017) agree that sea traffic density or flow is a crucial aspect amid water transport systems. According to Liu et al. (2017), the concentration of vessels influences the speed of ships, and to some extent, the traffic density is responsible for the constant changes in sailing speeds of vessels. Liu et al. (2017) agree with “COLREG” (2019) and Rutkowski (2016) that heavy traffic density on the sea predisposes ships to risks of collision due to the limited capacity of navigable waterways. As such, it is vital for navigation officers to understand vessel traffic flow as it is crucial in sustaining sailing safety and efficiency mainly through manageable speeds.
“Cult of Sea” (2006) settles with “COLREG” (2019) that vessel responsiveness determines the safe speed of a ship. “COLREG” (2019) posits that “bigger and more powerful boats need a large spinning point radius as well as have the greater top-end speed that requires more time and distance to stopover”. “Cult of Sea” (2006), on the other side, ascertains that the controllability of a ship with particular consideration to the stopover distance and whirling capability in the existing sea conditions should make mariners take into account their sailing speeds. Giving into “Cult of Sea” (2006), different vessels have distinct turning characteristics, and therefore their speeds largely determine their stopping time and distance. “Cult of Sea” (2006) writes that a large ship may stop their engines after being on full ahead and take emergency action to stop the boat by going emergency full astern, but then the momentum of the ship makes the ship come to a stop after travelling a distance of perhaps a mile. In this context, if a vessel was moving at a higher speed, they are more likely to gain momentum hence colliding with other ships.
There is a limited study on influence on factors that influence the safe speed of marine vessels. The existing body of literature examines either land vessels or all locomotives in general. Such research includes Romano, Peck, and Voas (2012) review of how age influence safe driving of motorists. According to the authors, old people have impaired vision that is associated with old age. As such, they are prone to accidents since they do not see ahead clearly. On the other hand, Machin and Sankey hold a different opinion. According to them, experienced drivers who happen to be old, rarely get involved in accidents because they understand the risks associated with driving. In contrast, young novice are prone to accidents because they underestimate risks associated with driving. Applying that to marine vessels, the young captains full of adrenaline and who love high speed are likely to cause accidents because of their risk-taking behavior.
Romano, Voas, and Lacey (2010) study on fatal accidents between young people of different races revealed that inexperienced drivers from minority communities tend to engage in risky driving behavior such as over-speeding and drink driving. In their findings, they assert that alcohol-impaired driving is a common phenomenon among young African-Americans and Hispanics. Hamdan (2013) in a similar study concurs with Romano, Voas, and Lacey (2010) that young people from minority communities are prone to road accidents. Risky behavior among such people includes ignorance of safety equipment, driving under the influence of drugs, speeding, and red light running. If that is true of road accidents, it could also apply to people involved in marine navigation. In another study conducted by Romano, Fell and Voas (2011), the authors contradict their initial findings. In this study, they observe that difference in drinking patterns, parental influence, and exposure to driving influence driving attitude among young people of different races.
The purpose of the study was to establish if there is a difference linking the type of generation of marine workers and the method used to determine the value of safe speed. A sample of 39 responses was taken both male and female. Data was collected using a questionnaire with both the open and closed-minded questions. It was issued to the respondents using the simple random sampling where each participant in the study had an equal chance of being selected. This technique was vita since it helped to reduce bias. Three inferential tests were performed in the study that is the t-test, chi-square test and the analysis of variance (ANOVA). All this test were used to establish if there was a significant difference between various variables in the study. The test was used to test the following hypothesis of the study. (1) There is a significant difference linking the age of the marine worker and if they have experience sailing in extreme state. (2) There is a significant difference linking the average speed used with experience on the sea with ethnicity. (3) There is a significant difference linking the vessel used and the rate of the situation. (4) There is a difference linking the speed sailed at a specific situation and the rating of the worst situation.
|Valid N (listwise)||39|
The minimum and maximum age of the respondents was 18 and 45 years respectively (Mean = 24.69, SD = 5.750).
|Strongly Agree||Agree||Neither Agree nor Disagree||Disagree||Strongly Disagree||Mean||Std. Deviation|
|Most of seamen follow the safe speed rule in COLERGS.||20.5%||61.5%||12.8%||5.1%||–||3.97||.743|
|Draught of the ship have effect on selected speed||28.2%||59.0%||7.7%||5.1%||–||4.10||.754|
61.5% of the respondents agreed that most seamen follow the safe speed rule in COLERGS (Mean = 3.97, SD = .743). 59% agreed that draught of the ship has an effect on selected speed. This was backed up by an average score of 4.10 and a standard deviation of .754.
The majority responded that they had experienced sailing in low visibility and they rated the worst situation as dangerous. The lowest visibility was 2 to 0 nm while the highest visibility was 8 to 6 nm. 33% recorded visibility of 6 to 4 nm, followed by 4 to 2 nm (30.7%) and 8 to 6 nm (28.21). 2 to 0 nm was recorded by only 7.7% of the total respondents.
|Frequency||Percent||Valid Percent||Cumulative Percent|
|What was the underway location||Narrow channel||11||28.2||28.2||28.2|
|What was the speed sailed on that specific situation||Less than 50%||7||17.9||17.9||17.9|
|Normal passage speed||13||33.3||33.3||76.9|
There was an equal 28 percent of the narrow channel and another place as the underway location. Many participants reported high sea (30.8%) as the underway location while harbour underway location had the least respondents (12.8%). Many used normal passage speed in that specific location (33.3%).
According to the table below, 64.1% of the participants had experienced sailing in an extreme state (Mean = 1.36, SD = .486) of wind with a vessel of between 7 to 14 meters (Mean = 1.92, SD = .900) at an average speed of 6.13 knots and they rated the situation as very dangerous (Mean = 1.95, SD = .999).
|Frequency||Percent||Valid Percent||Cumulative Percent||Mean||Std. Deviation|
|Have you experienced sailing in an extreme state of the wind?||Yes||25||64.1||64.1||64.1||1.36||.486|
|Rate the situation dangerous||Very Dangerous||16||41.0||41.0||41.0||1.95||.999|
|What was the vessel||Less than 7 meters||14||35.9||35.9||35.9||1.92||.900|
|Between 7 to 14 meters||17||43.6||43.6||79.5|
|14 to 20 meters||5||12.8||12.8||92.3|
|20 meters and more||3||7.7||7.7||100.0|
|what was the average speed used (knots)||3||8||20.5||20.5||20.5||6.13||3.172|
74.36% had experienced high traffic in a narrow location such as narrow channels and narrow harbours.
From the bar graph, 41.03% rated the situation as dangerous, 33.33% as safe and 25.64% as very dangerous.
|If yes, how traffic was it, Rate it from 1 to 5 where 5 is high traffic and 1 is low traffic||39||2.72||.183||1.146|
|What was the average speed used? (knots)||39||5.10||.369||2.303|
The average speed was 5.10 knots with a neutral rating of traffic with a mean of 2.72.
|Strongly Agree||Agree||Neither Agree nor Disagree||Disagree||Strongly Disagree||Mean||Std. Deviation|
|Do you think the limitation of characteristics of the vessel do affect the safe speed||15.4%||53.8%||23.1%||5.1%||2.6%||3.74||.880|
|Do you think the leadership of the headmaster can affect the safe speed on each different vessel||28.2%||53.8%||12.8%||5.1%||–||4.05||.793|
|Do you think that experienced crew can move faster in the sea||30.8%||41.0%||25.6%||2.6%||–||4.00||.827|
|In your opinion (Professional) By increasing the lookout means lower risk of collision||28.2%||35.9%||20.5%||15.4%||–||3.77||1.038|
|Do you think bridge technology enables officers to abdicate responsibility to it||23.1%||48.7%||20.5%||7.7%||–||3.87||.864|
|Do you think when the bow thrust that will affect speed and safety?||12.8%||41.0%||30.8%||15.4%||–||3.51||.914|
|Do you think that the location has control of the vessel speed?||25.6%||48.7%||12.8%||10.3%||2.6%||3.85||1.014|
|In your opinion Night is less safe than day in term of safe speed||23.1%||46.2%||15.4%||15.4%||–||3.77||.986|
|In your opinion, if the bridge equipment was advanced would that increase safety In term of safe speed
53.8% of the respondents agreed that limitation of characteristics of the vessel can affect the safe speed (Mean = 3.74, SD = .880) and leadership of the headmaster can affect the safe speed on each different vessel (Mean = 4.05, SD = .793). 48.7% agreed that bridge technology enabled officers to abdicate responsibility to it (Mean = 3.87, SD = .864) and the location had the control of the vessel speed (Mean = 3.85, SD = 1.014). 46.2% agreed that night is less safe than day in term of safe speed (Mean = 3.77, SD = .986) and advancement of bridge equipment would increase the safety in term of safe speed (Mean = 4.00, SD = .918). 41% agreed that experienced crew moved faster in the sea (Mean = 4.00, SD = .827) and bow thrust affected speed and safety (Mean = 3.51, SD = .914). 35.9 % agreed that increasing lookout meant lower risk of collision (Mean = 3.77, SD = 1.038).
|Have you experienced sailing in an extreme state of the wind?||N||Mean||Std. Deviation||Std. Error Mean|
The age of those who have experienced the extreme state of wind during sailing, yes (M = 23.57, sd= 1.390) while who haven’t, no (M = 25.32, sd= 1.209).
|Independent Samples Test|
|Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances||t-test for Equality of Means|
|F||Sig.||t||df||Sig. (2-tailed)||Mean Difference||Std. Error Difference||95% Confidence Interval of the Difference|
|Age||Equal variances assumed||1.367||.250||-.909||37||.369||-1.749||1.924||-5.646||2.149|
|Equal variances not assumed||-.949||30.631||.350||-1.749||1.842||-5.507||2.010|
From the table above, t = 0.250, p = 0.396, d = -1.749. This implies that there is no significant difference in the age of the respondent and whether he experienced extreme state wind or not. The difference in the negative, which implies that the mean age of those who admitted experiencing extreme state wind is higher compared to those who did not.
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects
|Dependent Variable: what was the average speed used|
|Source||Type III Sum of Squares||Df||Mean Square||F||Sig.|
|Whatisyourethnicity * Experienceonsea||.000||0||.||.||.|
|a. R Squared = .122 (Adjusted R Squared = -.043)|
For ethnicity F (3, 32) = 0.737, p =0.538. Since the p-value was smaller compared to alpha = 0.05, the study will deduce that the ethnicity of the respondent is not significant in affecting the average speed used. Further, the experience on seas is insignificant in affecting the speed of the used F (3, 32) = 0.343, p = 0.795.
|What was the vessel * Rate the situation dangerous Cross-tabulation|
|Rate the situation dangerous||Total|
|What was the vessel||1||Count||3||2||0||0||5|
|Value||df||Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)|
|N of Valid Cases||39|
|a. 13 cells (81.2%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .31.|
The test statistic, . The results indicates that there is an insignificant difference linking the vessel used and the rate of the situation.
|What was the speed sailed on that specific situation * Rating the worst situation Crosstabulation|
|Rating the worst situation||Total|
|What was the speed sailed on that specific situation||2||Count||8||8||3||0||19|
|Value||df||Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)|
|N of Valid Cases||39|
|a. 10 cells (83.3%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .36.|
The test statistic,. Since the p-value is smaller compared to alpha = 0.05, we deduce that there is an insignificant difference linking the speed sailed at a specific situation and the rating of the worst situation.
|Frequency||Percent||Valid Percent||Cumulative Percent||Mean||Std. Deviation|
|Experience on sea||Less than 1 year||18||46.2||46.2||46.2||1.82||0.970|
|More than 7 years||4||10.3||10.3||100.0|
|What is your ethnicity||Arabic||34||87.2||87.2||87.2||1.26||.715|
|What is your position||Lookout||4||10.3||10.3||10.3||3.21||1.080|
The majority (87.2%) of the respondents were Arabic with less than one year (46.2%) experience on the sea. The study interviewed 10.3% of respondents who acted as a lookout, 17.9% navigating officers, 12.8% masters and 59% other positions.
According to the first hypothesis which aimed at finding if there is a significant difference linking the age of the marine worker and if they have experience sailing in extreme state, one major conclusion is reached. It is surmised that there indeed is no significant difference in the age of the captain or sailor and whether they experienced hostile and extreme conditions at the sea or not. This finding posits that all captains regardless of age are more likely to encounter and experience aggressive conditions at sea (Anish, 2016). Bestowing to the second hypothesis which sought to explore if there is a significant difference linking the average speed used with experience on the sea with ethnicity, it is made apparent that the ethnicity of a marine worker is not significant in affecting the average speed of the vessel. Hypothesis number two further makes it clear that the experience on seas is insignificant in affecting the speed of the ship.
Sea waves and extreme winds are naturally occurring conditions which imply that human forces cannot trigger them and can barely contain them as well. In fact, containing aggressive ocean conditions is difficult and impossible to some extent. This is justified from the numerous cyclones, hurricanes, and typhoons that emanate from seas and or oceans causing devastation on the mainland regardless of human efforts to contain them. They are somehow unpredictable (Marine Insight, 2019). Looking at it in this standpoint, ship captains do not have any influence on the conditions of the sea they are sailing under. At one time they are more likely to cruise in calm and serene waters and also there are times when the ocean conditions become unfavourable. In the instance that sea conditions are hostile, any sailor irrespective of their age and experience are vulnerable to risky situations. When sea conditions are just too hostile, your vessel is more likely to capsize even if you are an experienced sailor. On the sea, the waters, and related harsh conditions such as waves and or extreme winds determine if one will sail safely or not. Age and experience are rendered useless to some extent.
But also, one would argue that the speed of the vessel matters to some extent. It is right to argue that speed matters and determines if you will sail and reach your destination safely or not. When a ship is sailing at a higher speed, it can even capsize in still waters. Herein, age and experience slightly matter. Instead, speed becomes the determinant convention (Metlink Teaching Weather and Climate, 2017). When sea conditions are extremely hostile, and a mariner is cruising at higher speeds, the chances of the vessel capsizing are surprisingly high. Sailing at low speeds in harsh conditions minimizes accidents, but again there are possibilities that a sailor can fail to manoeuvre successfully in hostile waters even when sailing at low speeds. The point in this is that age and experience do not determine whether a captain will encounter extreme conditions at sea or not. This is because unfavourable sea states are caused by naturally occurring forces in the earth’s crust which humans have no control over.
The study also wanted to investigate the hypothesis of whether there was a significant difference in linking the average speed used with experience on the sea with ethnicity. From the empirical study, using the ANOVA, the study surmised that the ethnicity of the mariner does not have any significant impact on the average speed used. In regards to experience, the study inferred that that experience on seas does not affect the speed of a vessel. Ship captains and any other marine workers are trained professionals. Due to training, sailors gain knowledge on how to navigate around the sea safely and sound. They are even trained on how to navigate around harsh sea conditions and how to manage the wheel under hostile states. They are further taught on safe speed for vessels to avoid or minimize cases of accidents. Training cuts across all ethnicities and what is taught to one ethnicity is the same thing taught to others. As such, the same skills of handling the wheel are acquired.
Mariners tend to act professionally on the wheel putting everything they have been taught and the skill they acquired in training in practice (Anish, 2016). All mariners regardless of their race or ethnicity act professionally. They observe and confide in their code of ethics. Since this is the case, the claim that ethnicity may influence the average speed of the vessel is highly disproved, and it is insignificant. It is not ethnicities that determine the average speed a sailor uses for their vessel, but it is the level of professionalism which includes taking into account the “mariner’s code of conduct.”
Also, a mariner’s experience on the sea does not affect the speed of the ship. The fact that one has spent more years sailing and manoeuvring in different sea conditions does not give them the freedom to cruise at faster speeds. Rule No 6 of the COLREG recognizes the importance of safe speeds for vessels (“COLREG.”, 2019). One of the importance of safe speeds for vessels according to this rule is to help cruisers to stop the ship in time and within a proper distance to avoid a collision. Observing this rule, experience slightly matters. What matters the most is the ability to distinguish between the dangers of sailing at higher and low speeds (Rutkowski, 2016). Even a new sailor understands the essence of travelling at safe speeds. As this is the case, the notion that experience at sea affects average speeds of vessels is invalidated.
Regarding the third hypothesis, the study realized that there is an insignificant difference linking the vessel used and the rate of the situation. That rightly means there is no association between vessels used and the danger of situations. Regardless of size and shape, all the ships have equal chances of being in danger or not. That could also mean the length of the ship does not affect stability but rather the shape. The respondents did not associate a particular size with a safe or dangerous situation despite having various lengths of ships. Consequently, the length does not increase the risk of accident or worsen a situation. Unlike visibility that would affect a situation and eventually the speed of the vessel, size does not. Consequently, the captains and other marine workers need to understand any risk in water and especially risk associated with speeding cannot be influenced by the length of the vessel.
Generally, the speed of a vessel in knots is about 1.34 times the square root of its size on the waterline. Waterline length is a vital factor but not the definitive controlling element of vessel speed. All factors held constant, a vessel with much longer waterline would be faster. Vessels do not ride on top of the water but have to displace volumes of water to go through. The formulae is given by 1.34 x √LWL (Mapes, 2007). For instance, a vessel with 20-foot waterline length has a speed of 6 knots, while that of 40-foot waterline records a speed of 8.5 knots. Consequently, the length of a boat does not worsen or increase the danger of a situation. It only influences the speed of a boat but not the ultimate factor for the safe speed of a vessel. Importantly, other factors such as storms and visibility could influence determine the danger of a situation but not the length of the vessel.
Regarding the correlation between the speeds sailed at a specific situation and the rating of the worst situation as provided in the fourth hypothesis, there was no relationship. That means the vessels would move at safe speed regardless of the context of the situation. Perhaps that gives greater attributes to the captains. They are able to steer the ship through a dangerous situation using safe speed. Importantly, since both captains navigate through all kinds of the situation safely regardless of their race, it implies that equal job opportunities should be accorded to workers regardless of their ethnic backgrounds.
The study sought to determine if there is a difference in linking the type of generation marine workers and the method used to dictate the value of safe speed for vessels. A questionnaire was administered to 39 people, and data collected, recorded, and analyzed using the t-test, chi-square test, and the ANOVA techniques. These tests were utilized to establish if indeed there was a significant difference amid the various variables of the study. The mean age of those who admitted having experience in sailing in extreme sea states was higher compared to those who did not. As such, it was established that there is no significant difference in the age of the sailor and whether they have experience in manoeuvring in extreme states of wind or not. Additionally, there was no relationship between safe speed and the race of an individual. It appears safe speeding is independent of age, race, and experience. When sailing, anything is possible from safe navigation to risk or dangerous sailing coupled with aggressive seas conditions such as high magnitudes of sea waves and extreme winds. Wholesomely, age, experience, and race should not be a factor when employing sea captains.
Akella, D., 2010. Learning together: Kolb’s experiential theory and its application. Journal of Management & Organization. 16, 100-112.
Anish (2016). What to do When Ship Encounters Rough Weather? [online]
COLREG. (2019). Retrieved from http://www.imo.org/en/About/Conventions/ListOfConventions/Pages/COLREG.aspx
Cult of Sea. (2006). Rule 6 – Safe Speed. [online] Available at: https://cultofsea.com/colregs/part-b-steering-and-sailing-rules-4-19/rule-6-safe-speed/ [Accessed 6 May 2019].
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Romano, E., Fell, J. and Voas, R., 2011, October. The role of race and ethnicity on the effect of graduated driver licensing laws in the United States. In Annals of Advances in Automotive Medicine/Annual Scientific Conference (Vol. 55, p. 51). Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine
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Rutkowski, G. (2016). Determining Ship’s Safe Speed and Best Possible Speed for Sea Voyage Legs. TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, 10(3), pp.425-430.
Yau, P.S., Lee, S.C. and Ho, K.F., 2012. Speed profiles for improvement of maritime emission estimation. Environmental engineering science, 29(12), pp.1076-1084.
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