Static Learning in the 21st Century
The Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) test, mandated by Senate Bill 103 during the 76th Texas Legislative Session, assesses students in grades 3, through 11. Two of the tests are benchmarks for passing to the next level. The state of Texas requires students who do not pass the third grade, standardized test, to repeat that grade level and students in the eleventh grade must pass all tests in order to graduate (TEA, 2007). Test scores have come to dominate discussion about schools and their accomplishments. Amrein and Berliner (2002) found that educators at state and national levels use test scores to evaluate programs and allocate educational resources. A school, whose math test scores have dropped, might allocate money to buy a new math program, hire curriculum writers, or buy math software. States began to rely on tests of basic skills to ensure, in theory, that all students would learn at least the minimum needed to be a productive citizen. (Rosenshine, 2003).
Despite its lack of scholarly credibility, a Nation at Risk (U.S.D.E., 1983) produced massive effects. The National Commission on Education called for more rigorous standards and accountability mechanisms to bring the United States out of its claimed educational recession. Because of a Nation at Risk (U.S.D.E., 1983), state policymakers in every state, but Iowa, developed educational standards and every state but Nebraska imposed assessment policies to check those standards. In many states high-stakes or serious consequences were attached to tests to hold schools, administrators, teachers, and students accountable for meeting the newly imposed high standards (Amrein & Berliner, 2002).
Administrators face threats of termination and cuts in pay exist. Low average class scores may prevent teachers from receiving salary increases, may influence tenure decisions, and in sixteen states may be cause for dismissal. Only Texas has linked teacher evaluations to student or school test results (Amrein & Berliner, 2002). With this extreme focus on passing the assessment, many teachers are forced to tailor their lessons around the test. Even though teachers spend much time teaching test taking strategies and content, students still fail the test (McGill-Franzen, & Allington, 1993).
Teachers must find a way to present test content and test taking strategies that
(1) allow more time to focus on the science and social studies curriculum areas; and (2) help students retain the information presented.
According to Stuart Yeh (2005), critics of high-stakes testing generally report four negative classroom effects produced by testing:
(1) Narrowing the curriculum by excluding from it subject matter not tested;
(2) Excluding topics either not tested or not likely to appear on the test even within tested subjects;
(3) Reducing learning to the memorization of facts easily recalled for multiple-choice testing;
(4) Devoting too much classroom time to test preparation rather than learning.
This study will evaluate the success of an alternative method for presenting TAKS related content.
Statement of the Problem
In the spring of 2007, only 78% of all fifth grade students, in the state of Texas, passed the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills science test (TEA, 2007) With most of the academic day focused on teaching math and reading, the time devoted to teaching science has been reduced to twenty minutes or less each day (TEA, 2005). Elementary schools face a general problem because of the inadequate amount of time teachers have to teach the essential knowledge and skills needed to pass the TAKS science test.
This study explores the use of an old concept; static learning with a new concept, captive learning to address the specific problem which is to create a method to deliver information to students without increasing the amount of time in the school day (Lewalter, 2003). Bulletin Boards are considered static learning due to the stationary nature of the information (Belanger & Jordan, 2000). Captive learning is when the learner is unable to move from the environment for a period of time. When captive and static learning are combined, learners are in a confined space with information posted on the walls. This study places state testing information on the walls of bathroom stalls, sinks and urinals.
This quantitative method study, with an experimental design, will determine if a relationship exists between repeated exposure in a static/captive learning environment and science TAKS test scores of the fifth graders, in, two elementary schools, of the Northside Independent School District, San Antonio, Texas.
Today, many school districts are mandating tests to measure student performance and to hold individual schools and school systems accountable for that performance. Standardized tests are a critical reporting mechanism for the Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) measurements mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (U.S.D.E., 2007). Test results give classroom teachers important information on how well individual students are learning and provide feedback to the teachers on their teaching methods and curriculum materials (Amrein & Berliner, 2002). Between the 1999-2000 academic year and 2003-04, the most recent date available, the average time spent weekly on science instruction in elementary schools dipped from 2.6 hours to 2.3, according to the U.S. Education Department (U.S.D.E., 2005).
Some public officials and educational administrators are increasingly calling for the use of tests to make high-stakes decisions, such as whether a student will move on to the next grade level or receive a diploma (Amrein & Berliner, 2002). Texas requires students to pass the third grade reading test, fifth grade reading and math tests and the entire eleventh grade test. The eleventh grade document includes reading, writing, math, language, science, and social studies TEA (2007). State required testing begins in the third grade. All grade levels, beginning with third; require testing in math and reading. A school’s rating is based on the results of these two subject tests and attendance and graduation rates (Accountability Research, 2005).
In a majority of the states, there are 420 minutes, or seven hours, in a school day. The seven hours must include reading, math, grammar, handwriting, spelling, science, social studies, lunch, recess, physical education, music, library, computers, art and bathroom breaks (Dean, 2004). NCLB requires a ninety minute, uninterrupted block for reading instruction to those districts receiving money for the Reading First initiative. If one subtracts the ninety minutes from the four hundred twenty minutes, there are three hundred thirty minutes left. Most schools require sixty minutes of mathematical instruction which leaves two hundred seventy minutes. Subtract the required thirty minutes for lunch and there are two hundred forty minutes left. Schools now require forty five minutes of physical education each day due to increasing childhood obesity. A forty five-minute block serves as the planning period for teachers. Time must be subtracted when children are transported, which means a loss of approximately twenty minutes each day. This difference in time leaves one hundred seventy five minutes to divide between grammar, handwriting, spelling, writing, science, social studies, library, music, art, computers, social values, manners and recess. If library, music, art, computers, social values, manners and recess, are omitted there are 29 minutes left to teach each of the other subjects.
Teachers are faced with the impossible task of fitting in all the material they are required to teach in the time allotted. Many strategies have been attempted. A thematic unit is a method which begins with a theme and integrates all subjects into the lessons. A weakness to teaching in thematic units is the paperwork and planning involved ensuring all state required objectives are covered (Ojala, 1963). State required tests are academically stringent and their results impact students, campuses and districts. The project using static learning will research the efficacy of an alternative teaching venue. Static learning can ensure that all objectives are covered in an organized manner.
The purpose of this study is to determine if a relationship exists between the repeated exposure in a static/captive learning environment and science TAKS test scores of the fifth graders. The use of static/captive learning can give teachers a venue to teach objectives required to pass the state test. This study will place fifth grade TAKS science information in strategic and obvious places in bathrooms to ascertain the affect this learning strategy has on test scores.
Significance of the Problem
This research topic brings static learning into the 21st century. Marketing and Advertising researchers have found a captive market to hawk their wares (Sadler, 2002). Using this same idea, schools may be able to use captive, static learning to increase their scores. With a minimum amount of time and effort, students can learn the required information. Teachers of all grade levels and subjects can use the static/captive approach. This study may bring a significant contribution to education through a new approach to present curriculum, without increasing the time needed to teach the subject.
NCLB, accountability testing, requires all schools in the United States to administer a standardized test and report the outcomes. Accountability results must be reported to state and federal education agencies. Schools are graded based on testing data. The pressure to pass the test drives districts and teachers into a test preparation frenzy (Johnson, 2004). Millions of dollars are spent on test-prep manuals, books, computer programs and worksheets (Gluckman, 2002). Static/captive learning can help teachers around the nation prepare their students for standardized testing.
Significance of the Study to Leadership
A principal is the leader of the campus. The challenge for the principal is to know his or her district’s mandated curriculum and make sure teachers are able to deliver it (Shipman & Murphy, 2001). As the key decision-maker for the use of time and space, principals must be aware of how the use of time and space affects instruction. Principals need to know how best to use assessment data based on relevant content standards with teachers, school communities. Improved student learning is always the focus of assessment.
Because of high stakes testing, teachers are always assessing to monitor student progress and plan the scope and sequence of instruction. Principals can work to structure school schedules to provide ample opportunity for formative assessment (used by teachers during instruction) and for faculty meetings where student work can be discussed. To learn well, students need access to high-quality instruction and a well-crafted curriculum. After that, they benefit most of all from the positive effects of strong school leadership. Case studies of exceptional schools, especially those that succeed beyond expectations, provide detailed portraits of leadership (Leithwood & Riehl, 2003). Large-scale quantitative studies of schooling conclude that the effects of leadership on student learning are small but educationally significant. In these studies, as in case studies, leadership effects appear to be mostly indirect. That is, leaders influence student learning by helping to promote vision and goals, and by ensuring that resources and processes are in place to enable teachers to teach well (Leithwood & Riehl, 2003). Static/Captive learning may bring a significant contribution to educational leadership through a new approach to present curriculum, without increasing the time needed to teach the subject.
Nature of the Study
The quantitative research study uses a captive audience as a new venue for teaching. Placing fifth grade, science TAKS objectives in strategic locations where students can view the information in the bathrooms gives teachers an innovative way to present the required curriculum. Teachers can target their lessons to a specific subject and grade level by choosing their washroom. This approach can be used for any subject and at any grade level.
The experimental design research method will be used to conduct the experiment. Quantitative information will be collected from the benchmark, TAKS released and TAKS tests. Many schools in Texas use a series of pre-tests, or benchmarks, to ascertain acquisition of knowledge (Diamond & Spillane, 2004). Benchmark tests measure the academic standards taught in each area. Scores reflect whether students master, approach, or fall far below the standards in each area. These results are used to determine if students have mastered the standards, are approaching mastery, or if they fall below standards. The teachers utilize this data to determine the needs of their class (Diamond & Spillane, 2004). These benchmark tests are given at equal intervals beginning in the first week of school each year.
Students will be assessed using the benchmark tests, and then the science information will be placed in strategic locations where students can view the information in the bathrooms of fifth grade classes in two separate schools. Two schools will serve as control campuses and will not receive information in the bathrooms. The schools have the same demographic make up which includes the following sub-populations: race, socio-economic status, special education, languages and at risk. After four months of intervention, a TAKS released test will be administered to the students in the control group and the experimental group. The results of this test compared to the results of the previous years test will determine whether the intervention affected the students’ ability to pass the test.
The focus of this present study is an investigation into whether there is an existing relationship between repeated exposure of students in the static/captive learning environment and science TAKS test scores of fifth grade students. The specific question addressed in this research study is one of whether students being exposed in the captive/static learning environment to TAKS information will serve to increase the scoring of students in TAKS testing?
Exposing students to captive/static TAKS information will increase TAKS scores. Students will retain information presented in a captive/static learning environment.
The work of Gupta, Liang and Homma (2003) entitled: “Static and Dynamic Neural Networks” states that in order to find solutions to the problems that arise in understanding “â€¦automation of task performed by humans, including speech understanding, decision-making and pattern recognition and control” it is necessary to examine neural network theory or the theory which relates to “â€¦fuzzy sets and fuzzy neural systems and the application of these systems.” Presently there is exploration relating to the “â€¦carbon-based cognitive computer — the brain” and the induction of the “â€¦process of intelligence into robotic machines. One of our aims is to construct an autonomous robotic vehicle that can think and operate in uncertain and unstructured driving conditions.” (Gupta, Liang and Homma, 2003)
Neural network studies have focused on the following:
(1) learning and adaptation;
(2) Dynamic neural systems;
(3) self-learning and control; and (4) adaptive filters and equalizers. (Gupta, Liang and Homma, 2003)
It is related that biological species have adopted strategies that are based on learning, adaptation, and self-organization in an uncertain environment. Learning by functioning is the most important that makes these biological species so robust and flexible. It is natural, therefore, that we adopt a similar strategy in the design of our intelligent systems.” (Gupta, Liang and Homma, 2003)
The work of Ford and Zaid (1993) entitled: “Eyewitness Testimony, Memory and Assassination Research” reports that there were approximately four or five hundred individuals who waited on November 22, 1963, for President John F. Kennedy’s motorcade to arrive in Dealey Plaza and that these individuals had no clue as to what they were to witness. It is reported that of these individuals that “less than two hundred testified” or recorded that which was heard and seen by them on that day while since then “many additional witnesses have come forwardâ€¦[and]â€¦eyewitnesses have told their stories to family and friends, journalists and researchersâ€¦” since that time. The questions posed across the years include those of:
(1) were multiple gunmen present in Dealey Plaza?
(2) Did the shots originate from the School Book Depository Building, the Grassy Knoll or perhaps both or neither?
(3) How many shots were heard?
(4) Who were the unidentified men in the railroad parking described only as Secret Service agents?
(5) Were photographs and films of the assassination confiscated by government agents? (Ford and Zaid, 1993)
Ford and Zaid (1993) state that memory “is the persistence of experience over time. It is a complex phenomenon which includes the capacity to:
(2) retain, and (3) retrieve information.
Furthermore, there are separate systems of storage for each of these memory capacities:
(1) sensory register;
(2) short-term memory; and (3) long-term memory. (Ford and Zaid, 1993)
The sensory register is stated to be a “â€¦brief (one second) and thorough “registering” of events. The fundamentals of such a process fall outside of the scope of this article for it has been identified only through the use of specialized laboratory equipment. Although it is always operative this system is not what most people identify as “memory.” (Ford and Zaid, 1993)
Short-term memory is described as a “â€¦brief (20 second) and limited (five-nine pieces of information) storage of data. Data is retained in short-term memory by repetitive rehearsal. Common examples include the retention of pieces of conversation or your anguished efforts to memorize a telephone number just given to you by the operator.” (Ford and Zaid, 1993)
Long-term memory is stated to consist of a “â€¦lengthy duration and sports an enormous capacity. Information need not be rehearsed when in long-term memory, but must acquire its place through an elaborative rehearsal in which new information is associated with previously acquired information. Such a function is an active, effortful process rather than a passive or automatic process. If long-term memory is conceptualized as a house with many entries, elaborative rehearsal would be the main door to the house. Notwithstanding the fact that sometimes information comes in through the windows most of what enters does by way of the main door.” (Ford and Zaid, 1993)
Ford and Zaid state that the process of retrieval is one that is an “active process” and one that is “â€¦often pictured as a search through ones’ memory — usually, long-term memory. The process of retrieval is perhaps best observed when it fails, as in the “tip-of-the-tongue” dilemma experienced by us all when we can not recall a specific item yet know we know it.” (1993) Retrieval, according to Ford and Zaid “â€¦is often studied in terms of states and contexts. State-dependent memories are retrievable only when the person is in the same psychological state as when the information was acquired. The classic example involves the consumption of alcohol but more common are subtle examples involving emotions. Context-dependent memories are retrievable only when the person is in the same physical environment as when the information was originally acquired. In a manner not clearly understood, context-dependent memories become linked to the setting in which the experiences took place. Examples include “revisiting the scene of the crime” or returning to a childhood home where the mere structure and scenery evoke recollections otherwise not previously available.” (Ford and Zaid, 1993)
Knowledge acquisition generally is known to be lost in terms of the retained information of the content within approximately twenty-four hours while the loss of previously acquired information occurs at a rate that is much slower. Forgetting may however, occur “at various places along the memory model.” (Ford and Zaid, 1993) Ford and Zaid report that events “may not have entered short-term memory because the temporal or stage limitations were exceeded. It is possible that repetitive rehearsal encountered a form of interference. Events may have entered short-term memory but not long-term memory because elaborative rehearsal may have suffered such interference. Then again events may have entered long-term memory successfully yet still be inaccessible due to state or context failure. The presence of other memories may also have caused interference.” (Ford and Zaid, 1993) Interference is stated by modern psychology to be a primary cause for forgetting information acquired. Two stated types of interference include those of:
(1) proactive — the interference of older memories on the recall of recently acquired information; and (2) retroactive — interference of recently acquired information on the recall of older memories. (Ford and Zaid, 1993)
Dependent and Independent Variables
TAKS science information will be placed in bathroom stalls of fifth grade students for six months. Students will be exposed to the information in a captive, static learning environment.
Increase in Science TAKS scores of the fifth grade students.
Definition of Terms
No Child Left Behind Act
Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills
Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills
Texas Education Agency
learning in a confined area
learning from information that is not active or moving
Assumptions (3/4 -2 pages)
Students will spend an adequate amount of time in the bathroom to learn the information.
The purpose of this literature review is to discover the knowledge ideas strengths and weaknesses of the study. The literature review allows the reader to understand the current research in the field and familiarizes the reader with any contrasting perspectives and viewpoints on the topic. There are many reasons for beginning a literature review before starting a research paper.
Animated Illustrations to Improve Technical Document Comprehension in Young Students
Boucheix and Guignard studied a multimedia technical document about gear [you should define gear as a lead in to this paragraph; as is, does not make sense] functioning by young students. The research focused on the effect of three factors on constructing a mental model: illustration format or animated vs. static and signaling cues or presence vs. absence learner-control of information delivery including:
(1) speed presentation;
(2) slow presentation; and (3) self-controlled presentation.
The experiment procedure, conducted with 123 children, followed three phases: pre-test, individual passing of the lesson, comprehension test, delayed post-test. The goal of the pre-test was evaluating prior knowledge about gears, but also the control of spatial and verbal working memory aptitude and reading performance. The results showed au effect of the animated format, of signaling cues and of the rhythm on the immediate comprehension test and delayed test. For the immediate comprehension test, these effects were different according to the kind of comprehension question (recall, transfer, explanation). These effects were maintained at the delayed post-test, for the self-controlled condition and for the pupils with low prior knowledge. The factor information delivery rhythm showed an effect for the delayed post-test. The observation device of the behavior of the child during the lesson was specially designed to explore the reading strategies between the medias.
This study addressed the different methods for delivering information. It is important background information to my study. This study showed that static learning is still a method used in teaching in current education (Boucheix & Guignard, 2005).
Effective use of illustrations is an important facet of instructional message design
We often think that pictures should faithfully mirror nature. According to picture perception theory, however, realism is not so much a matter of copying as it is of conveying. In certain instances, static visuals can facilitate knowledge acquisition when they accompany text. This study found that illustrations which contain text-redundant information can aid learning. Illustrations that are not text-redundant neither help nor hinder learning. Cues such as size, position, style, and color may direct attention but may not significantly aid learning. In the context of learning to read, illustrations are not very helpful.
Research on the effects of dynamic visuals on knowledge acquisition was limited. However, early studies of instructional film indicate that: Animation can aid learning if motion is a critical attribute of the concept being presented. Animation can significantly aid the learning of a procedural task. Animation used to enhance the realism of a presentation does not have a significant effect on learning. (Tobias, 2005).
Static in the Electronic Classroom: Can Technology Get in the Way of Learning?
Technology can be a very powerful tool in the technical communication classroom, but can technology sometimes get in the way of learning? It can if teachers do not carefully plan the transition from a traditional to the electronic classroom. In preparing for this transition, educators must consider the needs of our students, the capabilities of the technology, and the responsibilities of instructors.
While technology clearly has the potential to add new dimensions to writing instruction, it should not be taken for granted. Schools must very carefully plan the transitions from traditional to electronic classrooms if we are to fulfill the expectations as well as those of the students. The next question might be what to do when the computer system is down. Static learning is always available and can be used in conjunction with computer.
Focus on Basic Achievement Level on NAEP Stirs Concern
The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), a testing program mandated by Congress in 1969 to periodically assess the national pulse on student achievement, set three achievement levels against which student test scores have been measured. From lowest to highest, they were basic, proficient, and advanced. Reports on the results’ included a chart which showed how states fared over time on the percentages of students who reached or exceeded the proficient level. Proficient is the level that the National Assessment Governing Board (NAGB), the board that sets policy for NAEP, describes as representing solid academic performance for each grade assessed.
The 2005 report showed state-by-state trends focused on results for just the basic level. This subtle shift could have indicated a shift to focus on basic rather than proficiency. One major problem this study presented was the inconsistencies in the different levels of difficulty on each state’s test. The concern cited in this report was that expectations for student achievement were being lowered when it should be raised instead.
This study was directly linked to the present study. It showed the high stakes testing throughout the states and the report measuring the progress. While all states were not given equal tests, all states were required to hold their students accountable. This fact links my study to all states which conducted state assessments (Viaoero & Olson, 2005).
NCLB and Testing
A study of 1,450 Virginia secondary schools suggested that students’ scores on state tests may be partly a function of where they live, how poor their classmates are, and whether they have access to competent teachers. The author, Tuerk (2005), said his work was as notable for its research design as for its results. Using a two-stage process, Mr. Tuerk first found that, compared with other public schools, schools in poorer communities and schools in rural and urban areas tended to have fewer teachers who met the guidelines for “highly qualified” teachers under the federal No Child Left Behind Act. He next determined that passing rates on state-mandated tests given in 8th grade and in high school were lower for schools with fewer qualified teachers.
A direct correlation between socioeconomic level and test scores was determined by the researcher. This study is important to the current study because all schools have bathrooms and everyone must use the bathroom regardless of race, ethnicity or socioeconomic status.
Many studies have been conducted to support the premise of the present study. Testing is a high profile topic in education and will continue to drive schools and curriculum. Alternative delivery methods for learning are considered gold, if they are successful and easy to incorporate. This study will couple an old method with a new delivery and offer teachers a little extra time in their day to focus on other subject areas.
The Dependent Variable
In 2004, the President of the United States revealed the update to the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). The main emphasis of the Act was accountability. States began scrambling to create tests to measure their progress. Texas was a leader in the area of testing, as it had been testing students for many years in the area of basic skills. With the enactment of NCLB, the stakes were raised and Texas produced a more rigorous test. The education system in Texas is now expected to raise the passing rate in all areas and subpopulations.
The pressure to succeed on the test is immense. It is driving some students, teachers, and administrators to extreme measures. Several teachers and administrators have been fired for cheating in various ways. Large quantities of money are being spent in the quest to find the answer of how to guarantee a passing score on the test.
This dilemma leads to the Dependent variable of the study which is the increase in Science TAKS scores of fifth grade students. The project hypotheses the treatment will affect the outcome of the students test scores. Should the hypotheses prove correct, Texas teachers will have a new way to present information to help students pass the dreaded state test.
An abundance of scholarly research is not available on increasing fifth grade science TAKS scores. The state of Texas publishes many reports, analyses, and graphs related to tests scores; however, scholarly research is not often conducted (Accountability Research, 2005)
The article, What do test scores in Texas tell us, was the result of an investigation into whether the dramatic gains in math and reading scores on the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) represented actual academic progress. In particular, the researchers focused on the achievement gap between whites and minority students, particularly African-American and Hispanic students. The researchers found large discrepancies between the TAAS scores and scores by Texas students on the National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP). The NAEP is a congressionally mandated test, commonly known as the Nation’s Report Card, that assesses what U.S. students know and can do.
According to the RAND paper, Texas NAEP results showed very large achievement gaps between whites and students of color and showed that those gaps are increasing slightly. The TAAS scores tell a different story. Those scores indicate the gap is much smaller and is decreasing greatly.
RAND cites several reasons for the high TAAS scores. Those reasons include the following: Teachers are teaching to the test, higher dropout rates among minority students, estimated by the National Education Association to be about 50%, may inflate test scores, students who top out, or get nearly perfect scores, artificially narrow the gap between whites and students of color by raising the score averages, there is an increase in the number of students with disabilities exempt from the TAAS, and scores generally improve in subsequent testing years because students practice how to answer the specific types of questions that appear on the yearly TAAS.
Dangers with High-Stakes Tests
Although the RAND issue paper is critical of Texas, it also criticizes high-stakes testing in general. The authors suggest that other states learn from “the danger of relying on statewide test scores as the sole measure of student achievement when these scores are used to make high-stakes decisions about teachers and schools as well as students.”
A key point in the RAND report is that although TAAS scores did rise in Texas, it was because teachers teach to the test. That practice could hurt kids in the long run, the authors warned. The RAND report does not surprise another independent research and public policy institution. The Applied Research Center (ARC) in California studied Texas testing last year. “It’s what we suspected all along,” said Terry Keleher, senior researcher at ARC. “We are very concerned with the way the data in Texas is manipulated. “There is a significant racial disparity, and it’s pretty alarming,” Keleher continued. “About 85% of Mexican-American and African-American students, who make up nearly 40% of Texas high school seniors, could not get their diplomas even though they had passing grades. That is a real injustice.”
Keleher agrees with RAND that the emphasis on high-stakes tests hurts students because they lose gains in higher-order learning and more-complex reading and writing development. “The major candidates do not have an effective position on high-stakes testing. These kinds of high-stakes tests can be unsound academically, unfair, and actually racist.”
Texas Teachers Respond
That is not news to some teachers in Texas. “Teachers don’t have any choice but to teach to the test in Texas,” said Annette Cootes, spokeswoman for the Texas State Teachers Association, an NEA affiliate. Scores are published in the newspapers and then the papers line up the scores, comparing one neighborhood school to the next, she said. That puts a lot of pressure on the teachers and the students. All teachers are required to drill their students for the test, Cootes said. Teachers complain that they lose teachable moments. “You live by the TAAS. You die by the TAAS. But the TAAS is not the answer. We have felt that for so long because we are shortchanging the kids. They’re not getting a broad education.” Cootes added. “The Texas Education Commission office has been a fairly unresponsive, lumbering giant for more than 20 years.”
Teaching the Curriculum, Not to the Test
“Our state test is based on our curriculum, so we should not be surprised that teachers are teaching the curriculum,” said Debbie Graves Ratcliffe, senior director of communication for the Texas Education Agency. “The teaching and the test are going to match. Some schools do too much on drill and review. Mindless drill is not necessary.” In response to the criticism that children are losing out on a broad education, Ratcliffe said Governor Bush and the education commissioner, Jim Nelson, both believe schools must focus on reading because children who can’t read struggle in other areas. The Texas legislature enacted a law, however, that will require tests to include science and social studies in three years.
As for the high minority dropout rates — according to Texas figures, about 20% of minority students drop out, not 50%. Ratcliffe said that Texas does not include students who earn GEDs as dropouts, which lowers the dropout rate. Another reason academic gains were inflated was that the number of exemptions for special education students rose, according to the RAND issue paper, which Ratcliffe confirmed. “When the legislature began counting special education students’ scores and including them for school accountability, the number of exemptions for special education students went up.” In 1998, before those scores were calculated for school accountability, 62.7% of special education students took the TAAS. In 1999, when their scores counted, the number of special education students taking the test dropped to 47.2%. Ratcliffe pointed out, however, that the RAND issue paper cites researchers opposed to high-stakes testing, which taints the objectivity of the report. Texas commissioner of education Jim Nelson agreed with Ratcliffe that the RAND issue paper is tainted, calling it shoddy research. Nelson cited a previous RAND report, released last July that said Texas was a top performer compared to most states (Klein, Hamilton, McCaffrey & Strecher, 2000).
Accountability is a necessary evil. The question should be asked, what are we testing. Are we testing whether the student has learned the knowledge; can apply the knowledge or can infer the knowledge learned? Maybe the question should be what is the purpose of the test, then we will know what should be tested. In Texas, the curriculum is state mandated as is called the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS). By law, this is what teachers must use as a guide to create lesson plans for their classrooms. This project gives teachers an opportunity to present testing material in a new and unique format to help students retain the information.
The effect of time and level of visual enhancement in facilitating student achievement of different educational objectives
The effect of time and level of visual enhancement in facilitating student achievement of different educational objectives (Wilson, 1998) investigated how certain image and timing techniques, affect student achievement. It examined the efficacy of using static and dynamic visual strategies to achieve specific learning objectives when study time is varied. The study attempted to reveal whether certain types of static and dynamic visuals are more effective than others for achieving certain learning objectives, and to determine if the different visual strategies required differing lengths of study time for students to comprehend the pertinent details. The relative effectiveness of different arbitrarily assigned visual and timing strategies were measured by comparing subjects’ scores on a sequence of identical tests, which were designed to measure different educational objectives. The instructional sequence, which described the human heart, identified its parts, and described their functions, was delivered to 200 individual, undergraduate college students by computer-driven multimedia. Each of four visual treatments (static, graphic reveal, animation, combined graphic reveal and animation) was tested against each of two timing strategies (student-paced, versus program-paced), in a 4 (visualization) x 2 (timing) mixed factorial design.
Analysis of the test scores revealed that there was no interaction between the visual and timing strategies, and no significant differences in achievement between and among the four visual treatments. In the timing treatments, however, scores for the student-paced treatment were significantly higher than for the program-paced version.
Conclusions drawn from this study suggested that, in light of the high cost for developing animated visuals, static visuals may provide a more cost-effective approach for more sophisticated learners, including college-level student populations, especially for instruction that focuses on cognitive learning objectives. In relation to the present study, the conclusions proved that static learning is a viable medium for learning.
The dissertation achievement goals and cognitive learning strategies in dynamic contexts of learning (Salovaara, 2005), was conducted to study students’ motivational achievement goals and cognitive learning strategies in inquiry-based computer supported collaborative learning. The research was a longitudinal, quasi-intervention design involving mixed methods, specifically quantitative self-reports and qualitative process oriented interviews. The study was divided into four parts to examine the different goals and strategies.
The purpose of the first part was to determine strategic patterns in student’s computer supported collaborative inquires. The second part investigated students’ use of cognitive learning strategies in different learning contexts. The third part examined the change in students’ motivation and goals over a period of three years. The fourth part considered the congruence between students’ achievement and their goals.
The study found that the high school students needed more guidance and structure than just their own goals and motivation. The results indicated that students motivational and self-regulation processes should be studied in more detail.
Comparison of Static and Dynamic Media Types for Process Oriented Learning Tasks
The study, a comparison of static and dynamic media types for process oriented learning tasks (Guttormsen S., Zuberbuhler, H., Krueger, H., 2000), considered the relationship between still and moving media in learning. Multimedia was a challenge for the educational field, because teachers were not given consistent guidelines for how to apply the different media types for presentations. The tools for developing multimedia presentations were still not easily applicable for teachers. Hence, teachers had the choice between not applying new technology, learning how to implement presentations themselves or organize the necessary productions with external resources. Whenever the two latter options were chosen, guidelines about how to make high quality presentations were needed for supporting their own development or to know what to buy. This study presented an experiment in which features relevant for the presentation of dynamic learning contents (processes) were compared.
The benefit of dynamic presentation was smaller than expected. However, the fact that the research showed no difference between presentations with animation (without voice) and picture + text, showed that movement possesses basic informational quality. The hypothesis was further supported in that the best learning effect was achieved with presentation forms including a dynamic factor (animation and voice). The pictures were carefully produced to represent the same information as the animations (e.g. movements were indicated with arrows). Hence, the relative good effect of pictorial information may reflect good picture quality more than low importance of animation. In conclusion, animations alone are no guarantee of good learning performance when pictures and voice can be produced with high information quality. While that fact is true, animated presentations were preferred by the subjects.
This study was important to the present study insomuch as the benefit of the dynamic presentation over the static was very small. It proved that static learning is an effective teaching tool and is cheaper, easier for teachers to access, and less time consuming. Quality for Quality static learning is a better choice for teachers.
Conceptual Framework for Consideration in Multiple-Representation in Learning
Research on learning with multiple representations showed that when learners can interact with an appropriate representation their performance is enhanced. Recently, attention had been focused on learning with more than one representation, seemingly predicated on the notion ‘that two representations are better than one’. Yet, as research on learning with multiple external representations (MERs) matured, it was increasingly recognized that the issue was not whether MERs were effective but concerned the circumstances that influenced the effectiveness of MERs. The most common approach to considering the effectiveness of representations emphasized the sensory channel and/or the modality of the representations (i.e. auditory/visual, or textual / pictorial). Two theories that were particularly associated with this approach were the Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (e.g. Mayer, 1997) and Cognitive Load theory (e.g. Sweller, van Merrienboer, & Paas, 1998). They shared a focus on the nature of working memory (and its relation to long-term memory) with its multiple, modality-specific limited capacity subsystems. Presenting information in multiple modalities was seen as advantageous to learners who actively processed such information.
Schnotz (2001) focused not on pictures and text per se, but on depictive (iconic) and descriptive (symbolic) representations. In this approach, mapping happened at the level of mental model construction and what results were not an integrated representation but complementary representations that could communicate with one another. The purpose of this study was to present an alternative approach addressing different aspects of learning with representations. Instead of focusing on the form of the representational system, it suggested that there were a number of additional design factors that should be considered. Given its wider scope it was premature to advance design principles. So, instead of proposing predictive guidance, it aimed to suggest a complementary set of factors that should guide research into design of effective multi-representational software. Thus, this paper served as a review of research on MERs, an argument about the importance of acknowledging a wide range of factors that influenced learning with MERs and some proposed applications of this approach.
This study was important to the present study because it proved that students learn best different modes of study. The static learning proposed in the present study is one of many modalities of learning available to teachers.
There were numerous examples from the literature in which each of the individual areas have been researched and proven as viable methods of instruction. A detailed literature review was performed, which included examples static learning, standardized state testing and bathroom advertising. The objective of this research was to ascertain the relationship to learning when all the variables were combined.
From the literature review, the following was learned regarding static learning: The majority of empirical research on static learning was conducted in the 1970s and has been a widely accepted medium for teaching since that time. It is considered, by some, an old fashioned mode of conveying information. This study plans to bring static learning back into focus as an important teaching tool by proving its effectiveness in conveying knowledge.
The results of the reviewed literature consistently showed static learning as a style of presenting information that is still valid in education today. Teachers can use the static format with very little capital outlay, or training. The present study will relieve some of the strain on overworked teachers and give students and alternate learning modality. The present study will continue this quest for knowledge in regard to the qualities of static learning.
Due to federal requirements, school districts are mandating tests to measure student performance and to hold individual schools and school systems accountable for that performance. Knowing if and what students are learning is important. The potential problem with the current increased emphasis on testing is not necessarily the test, per se, but the instances when tests have unintended and potentially negative consequences for individual students, groups of students, or the educational system more broadly. The pressure on students and teachers to pass the state test has increased to a frenetic level. Students are developing ulcers and teachers are leaving the field in droves due to the anxiety created by high stakes testing.
Testing is a high profile topic in education and will continue to drive schools and curriculum. Alternative delivery methods for learning are considered gold, if they are successful and easy to incorporate. The present study will couple an old method with a new delivery and offer teachers a little extra time in their day to focus on other subject areas.
A captive audience proved the new venue for advertisers. Placing advertisements in bathroom stalls and above urinals has proved lucrative for many products. Advertisers can aim their message at a specific gender and zero in on a particular age or income level by choosing their washroom, be it opera house or gas station. The Land Transport Safety Authority of England wanted to stop men drinking and driving so it aimed its message where they cannot help but notice it – in pub urinals.
Research showed that people spend between one and three minutes in a bathroom each trip they make. Given a choice of reading the wall or staring at the floor, people will read the wall, even against their will. Utilizing this venue for teaching students testing information will help students, and teachers reach their potential with a minimum of effort.
The present study will take all the pieces from the review of literature and mesh them together into a new study in an attempt to create a new learning modality. The purpose of the present study is to determine if a relationship exists between the repeated exposure in a static/captive learning environment and science TAKS test scores of the fifth graders. In other words, put the science information required for fifth graders on the bathroom walls and see if there is an increase in test scores. The literature review showed that all the modalities were successful in isolation. The current study will research the impact of combining these already successful teaching styles.
Previous Research on Static Learning
The work of Lewalter (2003) entitle: “Cognitive strategies for learning from static and dynamic visuals” published in the journal of Learning and Instruction states that while multimedia is “â€¦is widely hailed as a strong improvement in education, there is still no clear evidence whether multimedia really enhances teaching and learning. A large number of studies have substantiated the supportive function of static illustrations. Today’s computer-based learning environments increasingly use dynamic visuals. Animations and static pictures impose different cognitive demands on the learner, and there is evidence that creating a mental representation of the dynamically illustrated learning content can represent a cognitive overload for the learners.” (Lewalter, 2003) the work of Lewalter reports an investigation into the “â€¦the effect of static and dynamic visuals on learning outcome using an expository text on astrophysics.” (2003) Lewalter reports an experimental study being conducted “with two experimental groups (one with learning material consisting of static pictures, one with dynamic visuals) and one control group (non-illustrated materials). All three groups dealt with the same astrophysical topic presented in the same manner.” (Lewalter, 2003) Study findings state that there were significant differences found “â€¦regarding factual knowledge for both experimental groups when compared to the text-only group. No significant differences were found between the materials using static pictures and dynamic illustrations, neither in factual knowledge nor in comprehension tasks and problem solving. The use of static visuals might therefore be sufficient for some learning materials. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings. Perhaps the most interesting research question will be which topics profit most from dynamic visuals and how students can be supported to use animated visuals more effectively.” (Lewalter, 2003)
The work of Rouet (2008) entitled: “Understanding Multimedia Documents” noted is that participants in a study were concluded to be more assisted by animations than by static graphics because there was a cognitive over load in the learner’s attempt to mediate static graphic meaning. Therefore, the use of words in combination with static graphics is desirable in order to reduce the cognitive load and raise retention of the information. Rouet (2008) does note that “participants in the animation condition took longer to study the material than participants in the graphic conditions. This is stated to be due to:
(1) the continuous presentation involves more pieces of information that take time to mentally integrate;
(2) the formation of a dynamic mental model could call for longer mental elaboration than surface representation of the explicit content; and (3) Learners in continuous conditions may be more eager to study the instruction. (Rouet, 2008)
Continuous running snapshots was reported to decrease retention performance in the static graphics condition because the learners had to split their attention between the main presentation and the snapshots, which decreased the cognitive resources allocated to learning, even at the rote level. This study finds that more study will be required to evaluate the potential of graphical only snapshots as a memory aid and whether verbal information might be more useful than snapshots with only graphical content.
The work of Anglin, Vaez, and Cunningham (nd) entitled: “Visual Representations and Learning: The Role of Static and Animated Graphics” states that the effective use “of illustrations in instructional materials is an important facet of instructional message design.” Illustrations may include the following:
(3) Graphs; and (4) Diagrams. (Anglin, Vaez, and Cunning, nd)
It is noted that a message is defined in the work of Fleming (1993) as a pattern of signs produced for the purpose of modifying the psychomotor, cognitive or affective behavior of one or more persons.” A ‘pattern of signs’ includes:
(2) Pictures; and (3) Gestures. (Anglin, Vaez, and Cunningham, nd)
Pictures or illustrations are defined by whether they resemble that for which they stand and nonrepresentational graphics includes “charts, graphs, and diagrams” which are “more abstract but do not use spatial layout in a consequential wayâ€¦” (Anglin, Vaez, and Cunningham, nd) the work of Levie (1987) is stated to suggest that four lines of research exist on illustrations including:
(1) picture perception;
(2) memory for pictures;
(3) learning and cognition; and (4) affective responses to pictures. (Anglin, Vaez, and Cunningham, nd)
Anglin, Vaez, and Cunningham states that the technique of linear perspective “by which three-dimensional scenes are represented on two-dimensional surfaces has its origins in ancient Greek architecture and scene design.” (Anglin, Vaez, and Cunningham, nd) However, it is stated that it was finally in 1420 that “a theoretical basis for the technique was elucidated by Filippo Brunelleschi of Florence.” (Anglin, Vaez, and Cunningham, nd) the technique involves the use of light ray patterns emanating from a natural scene. There are stated to be problems with this view in that the theory relates that the picture will be accurately perceived “only when the person viewing the pictures assumes a point of observation that is the same as that of the artist.
Anglin, Vaez, and Cunningham state that significant evidence exists that “generally memory for pictures is better than memory for words. This consistent finding is referred to as the ‘picture superiority effect’.” Three theoretical frameworks utilized in providing an explaining for the ‘picture superiority effect’ include those of:
(1) the dual-code model;
(2) the single-code model; and (3) the sensory-semantic model. (Anglin, Vaez, and Cunningham, nd)
Those who support the dual-code theory state the argument that “there are two interdependent types of memory codes, verbal and nonverbal, for processing and storing information.” (Anglin, Vaez, and Cunningham, nd) the verbal code is described as a “specialized system for processing and storing verbal information such as words and sentences.” (Anglin, Vaez, and Cunningham, nd)
The nonverbal system is stated to include “memory for all nonverbal phenomenons, including such things as emotional reactionsâ€¦” (Anglin, Vaez, and Cunningham, nd) This system is stated to be “most easily thought of as a code for images and other ‘picture-like’ representations.” (Anglin, Vaez, and Cunningham, nd) Those who support the idea of a single-code model state the argument that “visual information is transformed into abstract propositions stored in semantic memory. Advocates for a single-code model argue that pictures activate a single semantic memory system differently than do words. Individuals ‘provided with pictures just naturally spend more time and effort processing pictures.” (Anglin, Vaez, and Cunningham, nd, p. 858)
Nelson (1979) held that the superiority of pictures could be explained through use of a “sensory semantic model” and that there “may be a more distinctive sensory code for pictures or the probability that pictures will be processed semantically is greater than that for words.” (Anglin, Vaez, and Cunningham, nd, p. 858) it is noted that educational communication and technology researchers have tended to “neglect the work that has been done concerning memory models.” (Anglin, Vaez, and Cunningham, nd, p. 858)
It is stated in the work of Anglin, Vaez, and Cunningham a belief that it is “critical for instructional design researchers to be aware of the knowledge and breakthroughs that have been made by researchers in cognitive science concerning human cognitive architecture and a particular instructional theory based on current cognitive science research.” (nd) Anglin, Vaez, and Cunningham relate that one of the most significant of all programs of research on visual learning was conducted by Dwyer (1972, 1978, and 1987) which involved the use of similar stimulus materials and specifically those which were inclusive of a “â€¦2,000-word prose passage describing the parts, locations and functions of the human heart along with various types of visual materials including line drawings, shaded drawings and photographs in black and white and in color.” (nd, p. 858) Various formats were utilized to deliver the materials as well as were a variation of combinations which included “written prose with illustrations, a slide-tape program with audio, television and computer-basedâ€¦” (Anglin, Vaez, and Cunningham, nd, p. 859)
Additionally, a rationale was provided for the inclusion of visual illustrations in the treatments.” (Anglin, Vaez, and Cunningham, nd) Dwyer and his colleagues developed several types of criterion measures including:
(1) a drawing test;
(2) an identification test;
(3) a terminology test; and (4) a comprehension test. (Anglin, Vaez, and Cunningham, nd, p. 858)
Anglin, Vaez, and Cunningham state that based on their literature search and review “â€¦90 studies investigating the role of static pictures in knowledge acquisition were identified. The 90 studies were conducted with more than 13,528 subjects ranging from elementary-school children to adults. All of the studies included at least one comparison of learning with prose and static visual illustrations of various types vs. with a prose-only treatment. A number of the studies included written prose materials, whereas others included prose presented orally.” (nd)
Anglin, Vaez, and Cunningham relate that in the 118 experiments that were included in the 90 studies that there were “â€¦102 significant effects for treatment including text and visual illustrations vs. text only were identified. The results of the ‘box score’ summary indicate that static visuals can have a positive effect on the acquisition of knowledge by students.” (Anglin, Vaez, and Cunningham, nd, p. 858)
The work of Duchastel (1978) made identification of three general functional roles of illustrations in text:
(1) an attentional role;
(2) a retentional role; and (3) an explicative role. (Anglin, Vaez, and Cunningham, nd)
Anglin, Vaez and Cunningham relate that the attentional role is reliant on the fact that “â€¦pictures naturally attract attention.” (Anglin, Vaez, and Cunningham, nd, p. 858) it is stated that the retentional role “â€¦aids the learner in recalling information seen in an illustration, and the explicative role explains, in visual terms, information that would be hard to convey in verbal or written terms.” (Duchastel & Waller, 1979 in: Anglin, Vaez, and Cunningham, nd, p. 858)
It was concluded by Duchastel and Waller “â€¦that the explicative role of illustrations provides the most direct means with which to classify the role of illustrations in text.” (Anglin, Vaez, and Cunningham, nd; p. 858) Stated as seven subfunctions of explicative illustrations which were identified by Duchastel and Waller are those as follows:
(1) Descriptive. The role of the descriptive function is to show what an object looks like physically;
(2) Expressive. The expressive role is to make an impact on the reader beyond a simple description;
(3) Constructional. The intent of the constructional role is to show how the parts of a system form the whole;
(4) Functional. The functional role allows a learner to visually follow the unfolding of a process or the organization of a system;
(5) Logico-Mathematical. The purpose of this role is to show mathematical concepts through curves, graphs, etc.;
(6) Algorithmic. The algorithmic role is used to show action possibilities;
(7) Data-Display. The functional role of data-display is to allow quick visual comparison and easy access to data such as pie charts, histograms, dot maps, or bar graphs. (Anglin, Vaez, and Cunningham, nd; p. 858)
Anglin, Vaez, and Cunningham state that the work of Levin (1981) provided a useful framework in explaining differences in research studies concerning pictures and prose in that Levin stated the contention that “different types of text-embedded pictures serve five prose learning functions:
(4) interpretive; and (5) transformation. (nd)
The decoration function is stated to be associated with “text-irrelevant picturesâ€¦” (Anglin, Vaez, and Cunningham, nd; p. 858) Representational pictures are stated to be associated with “text-relevant pictures and do not represent actors, objects and activities happening in the text.” (Anglin, Vaez, and Cunningham, nd; p. 858) the role of organizational pictures is “to provide an organizational structure giving the text more coherence.” (Anglin, Vaez, and Cunningham, nd; p. 858) Interpretational pictures serve to clarify passages and abstract concepts or ideas that are hard to understand.” (Anglin, Vaez, and Cunningham, nd; p. 858)
Transformational pictures are stated to be “unconventional and not often found in traditional textbooksâ€¦” and furthermore are stated to be “designed to have a direct impact on a learner’s memory.” (Anglin, Vaez, and Cunningham, nd, p. 858) the work of Brody (1984) makes the suggestion that “many of the specific functions identified within these frameworks do not clarify how pictures function in instructional settings. First, some functions are too broad or general in nature and add little to gaining an understanding of the instructional roles served by visuals.” (Anglin, Vaez, and Cunningham. nd; 875)
Brody is stated to make the contention that a single picture “can increase comprehension in multiple ways such as gaining attention, repeating information, offering new information, and providing additional examples. A broad functional role such as increasing prose comprehension does not provide an adequate explanation of how a picture is used to affect prose comprehension.” (Anglin, Vaez, and Cunningham. nd, p. 875) Additionally Brody is stated to “offer his own set of representative instructional functions served by illustrations” and Brody’s approach in creation of a “potentially more useful functional framework was to identify functions in terms of what occurs during the instructional process. Another prime objective was to make the functional framework as general as possible in scope; that is, to make the functions independent of the specific forms of instruction, content area, or types of learning skills being taught.” (Anglin, Vaez, and Cunningham, nd, p. 875) Brody made identification of twenty “representative instructional functions served by pictures. A potential problem with Brody’s classification system for determining the role of illustrations in instructional materials is that it already contains a large number of categories. To extend his classification scheme further would make it less practical for identifying the role of pictures in either research or instructional design practice.” (Anglin, Vaez, and Cunningham. nd, p. 875)
The work of Alesandrini (1984) relates that “some of the previous functional frameworks dealt only with representational pictures, that is, pictures that represent the actors, objects, and activities taking place in the text.” (Anglin, Vaez, and Cunningham, nd, p. 875) it is noted by Alesandrini that other frameworks “also include arbitrary or nonrepresentational roles of pictures such as graphs and flowcharts in the functional mix.” (Anglin, Vaez, and Cunningham, nd, p. 875) a functional framework is offered by Alesandrini which is based on how instructional pictures convey meaning and based on the work of Grooper and Knowlton the role of instructional pictures is classified by Alesandrini into three functions:
(2) Analogical; and (3) Arbitrary. (Anglin, Vaez, and Cunningham, nd, p. 876)
Representational pictures are able to convey information directly through “tangible objects of concepts” or in an indirect manner “through tangible objects of concepts or indirectly by the portrayal of intangible concepts that have no physical existence.” (Anglin, Vaez, and Cunningham, nd, p. 876) Examples of representational illustrations are:
(3) models; and (4) manipulatives. (Anglin, Vaez, and Cunningham, nd, p. 876)
Analogical pictures are stated to convey meaning through “acting as a substitute and then implying a similarity for the concept or topic being presented.” (Anglin, Vaez, and Cunningham, nd, p. 876) Arbitrary pictures also referred to as logical pictures are stated to be “highly schematized visuals that do not look like the thing they represent but are related in some conceptual or logical way. Arbitrary illustrations are inclusive of:
(1) schematized charts and diagrams;
(3) tree diagrams;
(4) maps; and (5) networks. (Anglin, Vaez, and Cunningham, nd, p. 876)
Anglin, Vaez and Cunningham (nd) state that in the case of static graphics that the research is “fragmented and sporadic” and state a belief that “consideration of cognitive load theory and Ainsworth’s (1999) taxonomy of multiple external representations would be very useful to researchers interested in examining the effect of staticâ€¦graphics on student learning.” (p. 879) Additionally stated is there is much yet unknown “about how to design effective visual representations” and that future research strategies should be selected carefully to assure that we continue to make significant progress.” (nd, p. 879)
The following table lists the summary matrix of research for static visuals as cited in the work of matrix research results in the study of static visuals as cited in the work of Anglin, Vaez and Cunningham (nd).
Summary Matrix of Research Results for Static Visuals
Source: Anglin, Vaez, and Cunningham (nd)
The work of Alesandrini and Rigney (1981) as well as Anglin & Stevens (1986) and the work of Arnold and Brooks (1976) as well as others listed in the research matrix listed above will be next explored in this work in writing.
Anglin, Gary J., Vaez, Hossein, and Cunningham, Kathryn L. (nd) Visual Representations and Learning: The Role of Static and Animated Graphics. Visualization and Learning. Online available at: http://www.aect.org/edtech/33.pdf
Arnold, T.C., & Dwyer, F.M. (1975). Realism in visualized instruction. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 40, 369 — 370.
de Melo, H.T. (1981). Visual self-paced instruction and visual testing in biological science at the secondary level (Doctoral dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1980). Dissertation Abstracts International, 41, 4954A.
Dwyer, F.M. (1969). The effect of varying the amount of realistic detail in visual illustrations designed to complement programmed instruction. Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 6, 147 — 153.
Dwyer, F.M. (1972). The effect of overt responses in improving visually programmed science instruction. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 9, 47 — 55.
Dwyer, F.M. (1975). On visualized instruction effect of students’ entering behavior. Journal of Experimental Education, 43, 78 — 83.
Dwyer, F.M., Jr. (1967). The relative effectiveness of varied visual illustrations in complementing programmed instruction. Journal of Experimental Education, 36, 34 — 42.
Dwyer, F.M. (1968). The effectiveness of visual illustrations used to complement programmed instruction. Journal of Psychology, 70, 157 — 162.
Gupta, MM, Jin, Liang, and Homma, Noriyasu (2003) Static and Dynamic Neural Networks. Wiley-EEE. Online available at:
Joseph, J.H. (1979). The instructional effectiveness of integrating abstract and realistic visualization (Doctoral dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1978). Dissertation Abstracts International, 39, 5907A. Learning and Instruction, Vol. 13, pp. 177 — 189
Lewalter, Doris (2003) Cognitive strategies for learning from static and dynamic visuals
Still Under review:
Schar, Guttormsen, S., Zuberbuhler, H.J., and Krueger, H. ( ) a Comparison of Static and Dynamic Media Types for Process-Oriented Learning-Tasks.
Alesandrini, K.L. (1981). Pictorial-verbal and analytic-holistic learning strategies in science learning. Journal of Educational Psychology,73, 358 — 368.
Alesandrini, K.L., & Rigney, J.W. (1981). Pictorial presentation and review strategies in science learning. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 18(5), 465 — 474.
Anglin, G.J. (1986). Prose-relevant pictures and older learners’ recall of written prose. Educational Communication and Technology Journal, 34(3), 131 — 136.
Anglin, G.J. (1987). Effect of pictures on recall of written prose: How durable are picture effects? Educational Communication and Technology Journal, 35(1), 25 — 30.
Anglin, G.J., & Stevens, J.T. (1986). Prose-relevant pictures and recall from science text. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 63(3), 1143 — 1148.
Arnold, D.J., & Brooks, P.H. (1976). Influence of contextual organizing material on children’s listening comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 68, 711 — 716.
Beck, C.R. (1984). Visual cueing strategies: Pictorial, textual, and combinational effects. Educational Communication and Technology Journal, 32, 207 — 216.
Bender, B.G., & Levin, J.R. (1978). Pictures, imagery, and retarded children’s prose learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 70, 583 — 588.
Bernard, R.M., Petersen, C.H., & Ally, M. (1981). Can images provide contextual support for prose? Educational Communication and Technology Journal, 29, 101 — 108.
Bieger, G.R., & Glock, M.D. (1984). Comprehending spatial and contextual information in picture-text instructions. Journal of Experimental Education, 181 — 188.
Bluth, L.F. (1973). A comparison of the reading comprehension of good and poor readers in the second grade with and without illustration (Doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1972). Dissertations Abstracts International, 34, 637A.
Borges, M.A., & Robins, S.L. (1980). Contextual and motivational cue effects on the comprehension and recall of prose. Psychological Reports, 47, 263 — 268.
Bransford, J.D., & Johnson, M.K. (1972). Contextual prerequisites for understanding: Some investigations of comprehension and recall. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11, 717 — 726.
Covey, R.E., & Carroll, J.L. (1985, October). Effects of adjunct pictures on comprehension of grade six science texts under three levels of text organization. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Evaluation Network/Evaluation Research Society, San Francisco, CA. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. 259-946)
Dean, R.S., & Enemoh, P.A. (1983). Pictorial organization in prose learning. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 8, 20 — 27.
DeRose, T. (1976). The effects of verbally and pictorially induced and imposed strategies on children’s memory for text. Madison: Wisconsin Research and Development Center for Cognitive Learning, University of Wisconsin. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service
No. 133 — 709).
Digdon, N., Pressley, M., & Levin, J.R. (1985). Preschoolers’ learning when pictures do not tell the whole story. Educational Communication and Technology Journal, 33, 139 — 145.
Duchastel, P.C. (1980). Test of the role in retention of illustrations in text. Psychological Reports, 47, 204 — 206.
Duchastel, P.C. (1981). Illustrations in text: A retentional role. Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 18, 11 — 15.
Durso, F.T., & Johnson, M.K. (1980). The effects of orienting tasks on recognition, recall, and modality confusion of pictures and words. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 19, 416 — 429.
Gibbons, J., et al. (1986). Young children’s recall and reconstruction of audio and audiovisual narratives. Child Development, 57(4), 1014 — 1023.
Goldberg, F. (1974). Effects of imagery on learning incidental material in the classroom. Journal of Educational Psychology, 66, 233 — 237.
Goldston, D.B., & Richman, C.L. (1985). Imagery, encoding, specificity, and prose recall in 6-year-old children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 40, 395 — 405.
Guttmann, J., Levin, J.R., & Pressley, M. (1977). Pictures, partial pictures, and young children’s oral prose learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 69, 473 — 480.
Hannafin, M.J. (1988). The effects of instructional explicitness on learning and error persistence. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 13, 126 — 132.
Haring, M.J., & Fry, M.A. (1979). Effect of pictures on children’s comprehension of written text. Educational Communication and Technology Journal, 27, 185 — 190.
Hayes, D.A., & Henk, W.A. (1986). Understanding and remembering complex prose augmented by analogic and pictorial illustration. Journal of Reading Behavior, 18(1), 63 — 77.
Hayes, D.A., & Readance, J.E. (1983). Transfer of learning from illustration-dependent text. Journal of Educational Research, 76, 245 — 248.
Hayes, D.A., & Readence, J.E. (1982). Effects of cued attention to illustrations in text. In G.A. Niles & L.A. Harris (Eds.), New inquiries in reading research and instruction (pp. 60 — 63). Thirty-first year book of the National Reading Conference. Rochester NY: National Reading Conference.
Holliday, W. G. (1975). The effects of verbal and adjunct pictorial-verbal information in science instruction. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 12, 77 — 83.
Holliday, W.G., & Harvey, D.A. (1976). Adjunct labeled drawings in teaching physics to junior high school students. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 13, 37 — 43.
Holmes, B.C. (1987). Children’s inferences with print and pictures. Journal of Educational Psychology, 79(1), 14 — 18.
Jagodzinska, M. (1976). The role of illustrations in verbal learning. Polish Psychological Bulletin, 7, 95 — 104.
Jahoda, G., Cheyne, W.M., Deregowski, J.B., Sinha, D., & Collingsbourne, R. (1976). Utilization of pictorial information in classroom learning: A cross cultural study. AV Communication Review, 24, 295 — 315.
Jonassen, DH (1979). Implications of multi-image for concept acqusition. Educational Communication and Technology Journal, 27(4), 291 — 302.
Koenke, K., & Otto, W. (1969). Contribution of pictures to children’s comprehension of the main idea in reading. Psychology in the Schools, 6, 298 — 302.
Koran, M.L.,&Koran, J.J.J. (1980). Interaction of learner characteristics with pictorial adjuncts in learning from science text. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 17(5), 477 — 483.
Lesgold, a.M., DeGood, & Levin, J.R. (1977). Pictures and young children’s prose learning: A supplementary report. Journal of Reading Behavior, 9, 353 — 360.
Lesgold, a.M., Levin, J.R., Shimron, J., & Guttmann, J. (1975). Pictures and young children’s learning from oral prose. Journal of Educational Psychology, 67, 636 — 642.
Levin, J.R., & Berry, J.K. (1980). Children’s learning of all the news that’s fit to picture. Educational Communication and Technology Journal, 28, 177 — 185.
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