The Act of 1964 is a piece of legislation that looks over various discrimination practices in the work palace, voter registration requirements, racial segregation, and discrimination against women. The act holds that all facilities made to serve the public should be used equally by all members of the public (Burstein, 1985). The act enhances the staffing process by providing a guarantee of equal protection against any form of discrimination. It ensures that people are fully protected by the law and in that case, anyone having an impression of hardly being presented can take lawful action.
The aged population is in the risk of neglect and isolation from society. This is why Social Security premiums are considered for the retirees. This age group is marked as persons aged 65 years and above (Burstein, 1985). The actuarial rate is usually predetermined by the associated secretary and includes a specified amount for a given contingency margin. It is provided that every retiree is eligible for Social Security premiums at the age when he or she is hardly productive in terms of economic contributions.
Answer to Question Two
Supervisory bias is a major problem associated with performance appraisal. This problem can however be identified by a company thereby reducing the effect of supervisory bias. To reduce the effect of supervisory bias, the bias has to be identified first. Identification is done through performance evaluation (Tetlock, 1983). This kind of evaluation may emanate from the effectiveness of the existing employment relations within an organization. It is also critical to ensure that any evaluation process is subjective and open as a way of understanding the practices of the organization through supervision processes. Supervisory bias come from poor decision making that could mislead organizational operations. It should follow that clear and open strategies are presented for evaluation before any attempts of implementation. In another case, all supervisory acts should be guided by honesty and professional actions (Tetlock, 1983). Decision-making needs to be collaborative but not from the minorities’ point of view if supervisory bias has to be avoided. It would follow that all organizational problems that could be associated with supervisory bias are completely avoided.
Answer to Question Three
The Locke’s goal setting is a theory whose concepts can be incorporated into the Vroom’s expectancy theory. It is also feasible to incorporate the Adams’ equity theory and some of its concepts into the expectancy theory (Schunk, Dale H. & Meece, Judith L. , 2012). The goal setting theory asserts that goal setting is too powerful in motivating people and the motivation of oneself. This is highly used in various management systems.
The theory advocates for the setting of smart and achievable goals as a way of motivating individual and organizational operations. Locke found that employees were highly motivated by set clear goals that yield to positive returns. In incorporating some of the concepts of Goal Setting Theory into the Expectancy Theory, one has to picture out that both theories have a center of interest. The Expectancy Theory is based on working towards a given direction in accordance with a behavior emanating from a certain expectations (Schunk, Dale H. & Meece, Judith L. , 2012). The theory is a mental process and motivation comes from the results obtained after the positivity of a certain action. The Adam’s equity theory motivates through expectation in the aspect of being treated equally. When workers expect to be treated in the same manner, they work towards a common direction, goal, and achievements.
Answer to Question Four
Any organization is faced with an obligation to ensure the administration of five major functions. It is the work of an organization to carry out planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling. David Allen points out that it is the work of an organization to ensure a smooth functioning of all the five functions for it to succeed in its goals and objectives (Allen, 2004). He states that it is every workers obligation to know what his or task is and carry out the task effectively. Workers need freedom in what they do for the good of their organization. Forcing them to do a new task behind their will may be demoralizing leading to low yielding (Allen, 2004). In most organizations, priorities are decided from top downwards the organizational leadership. Allen states that, only values that drive workers’ visions especially for their purpose to be fulfilled lead to the achievement of organization’s goals and objectives.
Answer to Question Five
The controlling function is one of the key functions of an organization. This function is based on objectives, performance measurement, performance reporting, and comparisons (Yu, 2010 ). The steps employed on this function include establishment of standards, measuring performance, comparing the actual and the set standards, as well as taking remedial actions were necessary. These steps are important in that establishing standards determine the way to take action towards effecting the function. This goes hand in hand with measuring performance that gives way on the critical areas to put strength on. After measuring the performance, the organization obtains the actual standards that are compared with the set standards (Yu, 2010 ). This leads to an understanding of where to carry out remedial actions concerning the control function. The remedial actions can be done in accordance with various accounting or management ratios that include liquidity ratio, quick ratio, current ratio, gross profit ratio, operating profit ratio, and net profit margin ratio. The ratios give the basis of the actions to be taken.
Answer to Question Six
All the five organizational function go through a system of adjustments and changes with time. The changes are however more dramatic than others. Of the five organization functions, that include planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling, staffing would go through the most dramatic changes in the next decade (Yu, 2010 ). Staffing involving hiring the most qualified employees within an organizational structure in which case, technological advancements, legal structures in the work place, and skill adjustments would trigger changes in this organizational function. The law is coming up with various employment acts and protection on employees that could influence this function dramatically within a very short time. As education and technology advances, firms are demanding highly qualified workers. This makes it difficult to avoid any changes within the function. Technology on the other hand makes many organizations substitute labor for capital hence restructuring the staffing function within various organizations.
Allen, D. (Director). (2004). Making It All Work [Motion Picture].
Burstein, P. (1985). Discrimination, Jobs and Politics: The Struggle for Equal Employment Opportunity in the United States since the New Deal. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Schunk, Dale H. & Meece, Judith L. . (2012). Student Perceptions in the Classroom. Mahwah: Routledge. Ebook Library , 96-97.
Tetlock, P. (1983). Accountability and complexity of thought. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 45 , 74-83.
Yu, M. (2010 , March 05). The Five Basic Functions of Management. Retrieved January 28, 2013, from teamextension.com: http://www.teamextension.com/content/five-basic- functions-management
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