components of the scientific method in the article on the science of AIDS published in the journal Archives of Internal Medicine. Additionally, the article will be cited properly in the bibliography according to the APA citation style, sixth edition.
In the article by Semba, et. al., observed the anemic and the average ranges of hemoglobin among individuals with AIDS had not been well documented. The study’s authors hypothesized that hemoglobin (as they measured it in cross-sectional and also longitudinal analyses), possesses a measurable and significant association with health-related quality of life issues that are independent of the other markers of HIV disease severity. Further, they also hypothesized an important relationship between hemoglobin and quality of life would be apparent for smaller changes of hemoglobin within the range that is conventionally defined as a normal hemoglobin concentration and within the anemic range.
In terms of the experimental design, the authors examined the quality of life as it assessed by the MOS-HIV energy and physical functioning scales among individuals with AIDS. These individuals participated in longitudinal studies of ocular complications of AIDS. The study was an ongoing, multicenter and epidemiological study of ocular complications of AIDS patients. The participants. were enrolled and also followed up upon at nineteen AIDS-related ophthalmology clinics in the U.S. The inclusion criteria included the following: the participants were 13 years or older and diagnosed as having the AIDS disease. This analysis was based upon the 1993 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention revised surveillance case definition routine. These patients were seen on a semiannual basis unless they were diagnosed with a major ocular complication of AIDS like cytomegalovirus retinitis. In this event, they were examined quarterly. At the enrollment and follow-up visits, the demographic and medical information was recorded by using standardized questionnaires. Laboratory studies were also performed. The study required complete blood cell count draws that were obtained by using a hematology analyzer. The CD4 lymphocyte count was measured by using flow cytometry. Plasma HIV RNA was then measured locally at each of the centers.
The study authors found that for every 1-g/dL change in the hemoglobin, there were then changes of 1.5 to 2.3 points on the energy scale in conjunction with 2.6 to 2.7 points on a physical functioning scale. The initial studies were completed by using the MOS-HIV. This suggested that there were differences of 7 points on an energy scale and some 10 points on a physical functioning scale that was between asymptomatic and symptomatic of the HIV disease. In a clinical trial involving patients with AIDS, there were differences exhibited of 6.7 points on the energy scale with 8.8 points on the physical functioning scale. This was between those patients who developed adverse events in the first 4 weeks of the trial. This was compared then with those that did not exhibit any adverse events. For the patients exhibiting Pneumocystis pneumonia that was of mild to moderate severity, there was a 10 — mm Hg change in the A — a gradient that was further associated with a 5-point increase the energy scale. The data suggested that changes of 2 to 3 g/dL in the hemoglobin concentration and possibly less would exhibit importance to the average individual.
The results were that higher hemoglobin levels were associated with higher energy scores and higher physical functioning scores. The study’s authors conclude that they demonstrated that increases in hemoglobin are associated with significant and measurable increases in the quality of life among people with AIDS. Increases in hemoglobin are associated with increases in the quality of life. This would have wide treatment in the palliative care of AIDS patients.
In conclusion, the study exhibited all the seven components of the scientific method. This merited its publication in a peer-reviewed journal.
Semba, R.D., et. al. (2005). The impact of anemia on energy and physical functioning in individuals with aids. Archives of Internal Medicine, 165, 2229-2236.
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