Known for his contribution in Chinese philosophy, Xunzi’s work can be compared to the likes of Aristotle.Most of his work was recognized during the Warring States Period. Xunzi believed that man’s inborn evil tendencies need to be curbed through education, rituals and ethical norms. This takes away the significance of religion which should been formed to rectify mankind. His view on one hand inherits the Confucianism’s tradition that human beings can improve their situation through self reflection and cultivation. On the other hand, it absorbs the Daoism’s idea that Heaven takes no direct action and natural events occur spontaneously. In Gregorianum 50, Joseph Shih argues that “the works of Xunzi should be of current interest today because he promoted the secularization”. In my perspective, Xunzi does make a shift to secularity in early Chinese religious thought by his naturalistic arguments in “Discourse on Heaven”. His emphasizes on the significance of religious form in “Discourse in Ritual” are only forutilitarian or humanity purpose (Berthrong, p. 273).
The most essential definition of religion I used is close to MirceaEliade who regarded religion as an encounter with the sacred. He proposed the term “hierophany” to designate the act of manifestation of the sacred. Early Chinese believe that Heaven is everywhere and omnipotent owing reference to the Sky-god and the gods of gods. Early Chinese religion states that everything is in its control from rivers to mountains, rain to thunders, spring to winter, sunrise to eclipses, the destiny of the humans and the future of the country. Early Chinese worshiped Heaven with a feeling of dependency making them obligated and having a sense of mystery. Heaven has supreme power which allows the emperorsto seek the privilege to worship and offer sacrifice. This makes people believe in the divine right of the reigning king. Several rulers from Xia Dynasty to Zhou Dynasty gradually built a set of complicated hierarchical rituals with details to control people. This reflects on the use of the desires of “living to the fullest or in close proximity to consecrated objects” (Eliade). The religious system centering on Heaven is engraved in early Chinese’s heart and becomes their inseparable spiritual support (Zhongying, and Bunnin, p. 429).
Xunzi rationalizes early Chinese religious thought by his ingenious quasi-naturalistic arguments. Many aspects of the religion are plausible from our contemporary perspective. Xunzithus presents himself as an atheist. He breaks down superstitions and omens which provide naturalistic explanations for traditional beliefs. The early Chinese were not able to understand the unusual natural phenomenon such as eclipses, shooting stars, comets, and meteors. They interpreted the existence of these features as threats of disasters from Heaven. According to “Discourse on Heaven”, Xunzi repudiates these views stating that “If stars fall or trees cry out, the people of the state are filled with fear and say, ‘What is this?’ I say: It is nothing.” Based on historical records, Xunzi points out that these irregularities in nature are merely one form of changes by natural forces. “These are rarely occurring simple aspects among the changes in Heaven and earth and the transformations of yin and yang.” He mentions in his teachings on how the Chinese should receive the heavenly bodies (Kline and Ivanhoe, p. 272). He states that “to marvel at them is alright, but to fear them is not.” There is also no correlation between “Eclipses of the sun, moon, unseasonable winds, rain, the unexpected appearances of strange stars and the destiny of the state. “If the superiors are benighted and the government is unstable, then even if none of these things come to pass, it is of no benefit.” Here Xunzi exhort the imperators that there is no excessive need to concentrates on asking Heaven for blessings. He showcases his neutralist quality by believing that everything has its inherent laws of nature and is in proper order by invisible and formless accomplishment of Heaven. “The arrayed stars follow each other in their revolutions, the sun and the moon take turns shining, the four seasons proceed in succession, yin and yang undergo their great transformations, and winds and rain are broadly bestowed.” To summarize the quotes, Xunzi undermines the concept of the existence of a sacred lifestyle in the early Chinese. He instead proposes the idea that people should embrace the real world as opposed to relying on Heaven (Lee, p. 135).
Xunzigoes on to disagree with the Mencian notion that Heaven has a moral will. He instead asserts that Heaven is simply the natural world. People should thus focus on the human social realm rather than dealing with Heavenly ideas. He holds the opinion that “the activities of Heaven are constant. They do not persist because of Yao. They do not perish because of Jie”. Heaven does not suspend the winter because human do not like it. Earth does not reduce its abroad expanse because people do not like long distances. The natural world objectively exists independent of human consciousness. Xunzigives an alternative proposal on the idea that Heaven and man have distinct roles. He makes his point through the illustration of this concept by comparing the gentleman who reveres what lies within his power and does not long for what lies with Heaven with pretty man who forsakes what lies within his power and longs for what lies with Heaven. Xunzihowever does not mean that Heaven and Man are separated from each other, disjointed or alienated (Berthrong, p. 278). He suggests that human should nourish things and oversee them rather than to exalt Heaven and long for it. Overseeing what Heaven has mandated and using it rather than obey it; praise it rather than long for things and appraise them.People should order things and never lose focus on their choice. He concludes that “if one rejects what lies with man and instead longs for what lies with Heaven, then one will have lost grasp of the true disposition of things.” Consequently,Xunzi points out prosperity, fortune, adversity and misfortune which form essential part of religious thought of early Chinese religion. These elements result not from the invariable process of nature but from their own subjective capacity and activities (Kline and Ivanhoe, p. 268).
Xunzi’s emphasis on rite or ceremony is because of utilitarian or humanity purpose. Human nature lacks an innate moral compass and left to itself fall into is chaos and anarchy if human simply follow their desires. To reform humanity’s original nature, Xunzi believes that ritual as an integral part of a stable society is crucial because it clarifies and enforces social distinctions. This will bring an end to contention for limited resources and improve social order which will in turn, ensure greater prosperity. The ritual tradition not only emphasized reciprocal obligations between people of different status.It had extremely precise regulations concerning who was allowed to own what kind of luxuries. Although rite or ceremony could be considered as religious form and Xunzi reiterates their significance, he gives them new meaning. When he mentions that “the sacrificial rites are the refined expression of remembrance and longing. They are the utmost in loyalty, trustworthiness, love, and respect. They are the fullest manifestation of rituals, proper regulation, good form, and proper appearance.” In Xunzi’s view, sacrificial rites represent humanity not superstitions (Lee, p. 139). He criticizes the common people “regard them as serving the ghosts and praises the sage “clearly understands the meaning of the ceremonies”. As for other ceremonies like the rain, sacrifice or divination on national affairs, Xunzi directly points out that the nature of religion is served for the politics.It is merely the way that imperators master people. With or without the rain sacrifice, it will rain anyway. Divination is not for the sake of getting what one seeks but rather to give things proper form. At the early times when the superstitious beliefs and traditional religions are popular, Xunzi shows his thoughts of humanism that he dares to deny the theological bases of religion, changing Dao of God to the Dao of Man. He asserts that “the gentleman looks upon [divination] as proper form, but the common people look upon [divination] as connecting with spirits” (Lai, p. 209).
In conclusion, by interpreting religion in ways of science, philosophy or traditions, Xunzi’s view is logical and persuasive and brings dramatic impact on early Chinese religious thought making his metaphysical in nature. However, its dogma does not support the basements of the imperial hierarchy. His thoughts are later considered to be outside of Confucian orthodoxy and not to be accepted by the mainstream afterward.
Berthrong, John. Expanding Process: Exploring Philosophical and Theological Transformations in China and the West. State Univ of New York Pr, 2009. Print.
Cheng, Zhongying, and Nicholas Bunnin.Contemporary Chinese Philosophy. Malden, Mass: Blackwell Publishers, 2002. Print.
Kline, T C, and P J. Ivanhoe.Virtue, Nature, and Moral Agency in the Xunzi. Indianapolis: Hackett Pub, 2000. Print.
Lai, Karyn. Learning from Chinese Philosophies: Ethics of Interdependent and Contextualised Self. Aldershot, England: Ashgate, 2006. Print.
Lee, Janghee. Xunzi and Early Chinese Naturalism. Albany: State Univ. of New York Press, 2005. Print.
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!
We provide professional writing services to help you score straight A’s by submitting custom written assignments that mirror your guidelines.
Get result-oriented writing and never worry about grades anymore. We follow the highest quality standards to make sure that you get perfect assignments.
Our writers have experience in dealing with papers of every educational level. You can surely rely on the expertise of our qualified professionals.
Your deadline is our threshold for success and we take it very seriously. We make sure you receive your papers before your predefined time.
Someone from our customer support team is always here to respond to your questions. So, hit us up if you have got any ambiguity or concern.
Sit back and relax while we help you out with writing your papers. We have an ultimate policy for keeping your personal and order-related details a secret.
We assure you that your document will be thoroughly checked for plagiarism and grammatical errors as we use highly authentic and licit sources.
Still reluctant about placing an order? Our 100% Moneyback Guarantee backs you up on rare occasions where you aren’t satisfied with the writing.
You don’t have to wait for an update for hours; you can track the progress of your order any time you want. We share the status after each step.
Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.
Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.
From brainstorming your paper's outline to perfecting its grammar, we perform every step carefully to make your paper worthy of A grade.
Hire your preferred writer anytime. Simply specify if you want your preferred expert to write your paper and we’ll make that happen.
Get an elaborate and authentic grammar check report with your work to have the grammar goodness sealed in your document.
You can purchase this feature if you want our writers to sum up your paper in the form of a concise and well-articulated summary.
You don’t have to worry about plagiarism anymore. Get a plagiarism report to certify the uniqueness of your work.
Join us for the best experience while seeking writing assistance in your college life. A good grade is all you need to boost up your academic excellence and we are all about it.
We create perfect papers according to the guidelines.
We seamlessly edit out errors from your papers.
We thoroughly read your final draft to identify errors.
Work with ultimate peace of mind because we ensure that your academic work is our responsibility and your grades are a top concern for us!
Dedication. Quality. Commitment. Punctuality
Here is what we have achieved so far. These numbers are evidence that we go the extra mile to make your college journey successful.
We have the most intuitive and minimalistic process so that you can easily place an order. Just follow a few steps to unlock success.
We understand your guidelines first before delivering any writing service. You can discuss your writing needs and we will have them evaluated by our dedicated team.
We write your papers in a standardized way. We complete your work in such a way that it turns out to be a perfect description of your guidelines.
We promise you excellent grades and academic excellence that you always longed for. Our writers stay in touch with you via email.